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Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Textbook Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

PSYB65 Textbook notes Chapter 11: Attention and Consciousness 1 STUDYING ATTENTION Attention can be defined in many different ways selective attention: the process that allows the selection of inputs, thoughts, or actions while other ones are ignored. Voluntary attention: one intentionally shifts attention from one input to another. Reflexive attention: the shift occurs in response to some external event. Cocktail party effect: the effect is the ability to focus ones listening attention on a single speaker among a cacophony of conversations and background noises. After many dichotic listening tests, Cherry suggested that spatial hearing was the main mechanism for segregating auditory inputs. After other experimental work, it is found that auditory selective attention is mediated by the contralateral anterior temporal lobe. Early versus Late Selection Helmholtz and William James suggested that the gate for selective attention is actually very early in the sensation and perception process. Late selection: Another idea is that the attention operates after the sensory information has been perceived, identified, and or categorized. In the stroop effect, unattended semantic information influences the processing of attended information. How Does Attention Shift?: Voluntary versus Reflexive Orienting Autonomic processes have significant influence on controlled ones. Shifts in attention could be over (moving the eyes when shifting visual attention) or covert (visual attention did not correspond to the location of visual fixation). Voluntary shifts in Attention Voluntary shifts in attention are the changes you intentionally initiate, changing the focus of your attention from one thing to another. Experiment: Cueing task Presenting a stimuli and asks the participant to respond as quick as possible. There is a valid cue which cues the participant before the presentation of the stimuli, theres also an invalid cue which was misleading, then theres a neutral cue, in which the cue doesnt tell you anything. Interestingly, when the cues were valid, the participants responded faster which is called a benefit they learn to see the cue to help, thus their reaction time went down. Inactive cues increases average reaction time, resulting in a cost. This experiment can be attributed to either early or late selection. Neural System(s) Subserving Attention Every cortical cell (with the exception of some primary visual and motor areas) can have its activity influenced by attention. According to the Baddeleys model of working memory, attention is controlled by the central executive (chapter 7). central executive is defined by what it does. central executive is involved with the allocation of attention, strategy selection, and the www.notesolution.com
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