Textbook Notes (368,794)
Canada (162,165)
Psychology (9,697)
PSYB65H3 (479)
Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 1

midterm study guide (inlcude 41 pages of SOLID notes - chapters 1,2,3,5,6,12,13,14)

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Ted Petit

[Pick the date] [TYPE THE DOCUMENT TITLE] Main Teaching Points: Module 1.1: Introduction to Neuropsychology 1. The 10% Myth 2. What is Neuropsychology 3. Heart, Mind, and Brain: The Early History of Neuropsychology 4. The Mind-Body Problem Module 1.2: The Recent History of Neuropsychology 1. Cataloguing the Effects of Lesions 2. Focus on the Neuron 3. The Brain Mappers 4. Functional Neurosurgery 5. The Paradigm Shift in Neuropsychology Module 1.1 Introduction to Neuropsychology The 10% Myth Myth: Humans use only 10% of their brain Overinterpretation Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens & Karl Lashley animals were able to perform basic function after almost 90% of their brains were damaged What is Neuropsychology? Neuropsychology the study of the relation between behaviour and the activity of the brain Assumes that an individuals behaviour is at least in part the result of the activity in the brain Types of Neuropsychologists: 1. Clinical Neuropsychology the branch of neuropsychology concerned with psychological assessment, management, and rehabilitation of neurological disease and injury 2. Experimental Neuropsychology the branch of neuropsychology concerned with how human behaviour arises from brain activity, which includes explaining how patterns of behavioural impairments can be explained in terms of disruptions to the damaged neural components Aka. Cognitive Neuropsychology / Cognitive Neuroscience Heart, Mind, and Brain: The Early History of Neuropsychology A. Human thoughts and behaviours were not always attributed to the brain 1. Empedocles o All matter was composed of four elements: fire, air, water, earth o Cardiac / Cardiocentric Hypothesis: Heart was the source of human behaviour 2. Aristotle o Heart is normally very active and warm source of thought and sensation o Brain served as a radiator, cooling the blood www.notesolution.com [Pick the date] [TYPE THE DOCUMENT TITLE] B. Cephalocentric Hypothesis / Brain Hypothesis o Hippocrates / Galen o Brain is responsible for human behaviour The Mind-Body Problem Rene Descartes Reflexive Theory of the control of behaviour the flow of animal spirits through valvules within nervous tissue filaments Reflexive behaviour caused by external stimuli (animal spirits) Accounted for some involuntary behaviours (withdrawing ones hand from a hot stimulus) but could not account for voluntary behaviour Believed that voluntary behaviours depended on the interface of the mechanistic body with a rational, decision-making soul Pineal gland was single and surrounded by CSF Cavities of CSF were reservoirs for the animal spirits necessary for action voluntary action would produce small movements of the pineal gland, resulting in the release of animal spirits throughout the body and producing movement of the body Influenced by technologies of that time: hydraulics Dualism the mind and body are separate but interacting entities Mind and body do interact in a causal fashion without specifying how Mind and body function in parallel without interacting Mind can affect the body but the body cannot affect the mind Monism mind and body are unitary Module 1.2 The Recent History of Neuropsychology Year 1990 1990s would be the decade of the brain Neuropsychology draws from a number of very established disciplines: anthropology, biology, physiology, neurology Cataloging the Effects of Lesions A. Contributors to Passive Role of Brain 1. Jean-Cesar Lagallois o Lesioning the medulla resulted in the immediate cessation of breathing discovery of respiratory center within the medulla o First widely accepted function to be localized within the brain 2. Charles Bell + Francois Magendie o Studied the nerves that exited the spinal cord dorsal roots (nerves that leave the spinal cord on the back of the spinal cord) had sensory functions; ventral roots (nerves that leave the spinal cord on the front) were responsible for motor functions www.notesolution.com [Pick the date] [TYPE THE DOCUMENT TITLE] Functional Segregation of spinal cord set stage to examine whether or not the brain was also organized into separate sensory and motor components B. Functional and Anatomical Segregation 1. Franz Joseph Gall o Stated that there were 27 distinct cognitive abilities (faculties) that could be localized on the cortex of the human brain were poorly defined faculties: love of friends, wisdom, acquisitiveness, destructiveness, etc o Cognitive skills, such as mathematical ability, memory for words, and spoken language, were mediated by separate areas of the brain o Believed that the cortex behaved like muscles, in that increased size of an area was associated with increased function phrenology Increase in size could result in a deformation of the skull which then could be measured empirically by using a technique called cranioscopy Phrenology the measurements of the skull and pronouncement on personality 2. Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens o Strong critic against phrenology phrenology was at best subjective and that all analyses were performed post hoc o Firm believer of empirical method lesioning techniques to study corresponding effects on behaviour Cerebellum coordinated movement Medulla vital functions Observed that sometimes following lesions, function may be restored o Equipotentiality cortex functioned as a whole and that there was no functional specialization within the cortex 3. Friedrich Goltz o Believed in Flourens equipotentiality performed a number of experiments involving the removal of the cortex in dogs and cats and observed that only the size of the lesion, not the location of the lesion, affected the behaviour of the nonhuman animal 4. David Ferrier behavioural observations of decorticate dogs and monkeys were inconsistent with the position of cortical equipotentiality o Suggested that the results of the lesion experiments were consistent with the localization of sensory and motor functions within discrete portions of the cortex 5. Gustav Fritsh & Eduard Hitzig o Demonstrated that the frontal cortex of the dog was essential for the production of normal movement o Overturned theory of cortical equipotentiality Gall was right but for wrong reason Goltz and Fluorens used right techniques but came to the wrong conclusions 6. Paul Broca www.notesolution.com [Pick the date] [TYPE THE DOCUMENT TITLE] o Language first higher cognitive function that was successfully localized o Role of frontal cortex in the production of speech Tan circumscribed lesion of left frontal lobe resulted in the incapability of speech production Amphemia / Brocas Aphasia lost the ability for speech but retained the ability to understand language; articulate speech was affected 7. Carl Wernicke o There was an auditory center (Wernickes area) in the temporal lobes that, when damaged, would result in an individual who could still produce speech but would be incapable of using words correctly and be unable to understand the speech of others (Wernickes Aphasia) o There should be a number of different aphasias that would produce different symptoms based on the site and extent of the lesions o The total or global aphasia (a complete inability to understand or produce language) would result from lesions of both Wernickes and Brocas areas Focus on the Neuron Anatomical Studies Challenges that had to be overcome to study the cellular constituents of the brain: Size of the cells Texture of the brain Lack of pigmentation in much of the brain Histology the study of thinly sliced, fixed, and stained tissues 1. Nissl Stain o Franz Nissl o Distinguishes neurons from other cells in the brain stains the central portions of neurons (cell body) and nissl bodies 2. Golgi Stain o Camillo Golgi o When tissue is soaked in silver chromate, some of the neurons become
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