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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Introduction to Neuropsychology

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit
Semester
Fall

Description
Introduction overview of CNS organization anatomy development and evolution 1 12 13Chapter 1 Introduction to Neuropsychology Module 11 Introduction to NeuropsychologyThe 10Myth The claim that humans only use 10 of their brain has unknown origins but both MarieJeanPierre Flourens 19741867 and Karl Lashley 18901958 performed experiments that involved damaging or removing large portion of animal brains After the animals were observed and often animals could still perform basic functions These results led others to overinterpretation and exaggeration that the animals used only 10 of their brains later being generalized to humansWhat is Neuropsychology1 Psychology is the study of behaviour and is an attempt to describe explain and predict behaviour sometimes it is also the study of how to change behaviour2 Neuropsychology is a specialty and is also the study of behaviour it is the study of the RELATION between behaviour and the activity of the brainy Clinical neuropsychology is the branch of neuropsychology concerned with psychological assessment management and rehabilitation or neurological disease and behaviour y Experimental neuropsychology focuses on how patterns of behavioural impairments can be explained in terms of disruptions to the damaged neural components Experimental neuropsychology is also called cognitive neuropsychologycognitive neuroscienceThe Heart Mind and Brian The Early History of Neuropsychology y The assumption that the brain plays a central role in behaviour is not contentious however human thoughts and behaviours were not always attributed to the brain y Empedocles 295425 BC was a philosopher best known for his position that all matter was composed of 4 elements fire air water and earth who believed that the heart was the source of human behaviourcardiac or cardiocentric hypothesis y Aristotle 384322 BC came to the same conclusions although for different reasons Because the hear is very active and warm eh thought that it was the source of thought and sensation y As argued by Hippocrates 430350 BC and Gales AD 129199 the brain is responsible for these functions a view called the brain or cephalocentric hypothesis They were incorrect about the detailsbut were later corrected by others ie Albertus Magnus y From fossilized skull fractures in early hominids Finger 994 suggests that there was recognition that damaging the brain or the head would result in the deathdisabling of an individual There are also ancient skulls that have been surgically excised or cut open maybe for therapeutic valuetrephination There are also writing form ancient Egypt 500 years ago that document symptoms of brain damage y Table 11 Neuroscience History Timeline y For a while the brain was viewed as passive interpreter of signals whereas the mind was characterized as a separate entity from the brainThe MindBody Problem Rene Descartes 15961650 presented a reflexive theory of the control of behaviour which he described the flow of animals spirits through valvules within nervous tissue filaments This theory accounted for reflexive behaviours by describing how external stimuli would move the skin etc Descartes believed that voluntary behaviours depended on the interface of the mechanistic body with a rational decisionmaking soul at the pineal glandcomposed of a single structure along the midline of the brain surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid a clear fluid that supports and cleanses the brain was also important y Ne hydraulic machines and mechanical dolls were on exhibit in Paris and the parts movements and complex behaviours influenced Descartes theory It heavily relied on this modern technology
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