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PSYB65 Ch 6

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Ted Petit

1 PSYB65 Ch 6 SensationPerceptionOur brains takes discrete wavelengths of light sensation and translate them into the phenomena that appears to use as the 3D world perceptionThe visual system doesnt produce an accurate internal copy of the external world it produces distorted upside down backward 2D images interpreted by other parts of the visual systemThere are two aspects to the sensory system 1 Sensation the detection of some aspect of a stimulus in the envt2 Perception the way we our brains interpret the info thats gathered by the senses vision audition smell taste and Proprioception Primary sensory cortex the first part of the cortex that gets info relayed f the senses through the thalamusthe primary cortext has the most direct access to the info provided by the sensory systems eyes Secondary sensory cortex receives much of its info f the primary sensory cortex highly interconnectedits info it then sent to the association cortexAssociation cortex any area of the cortex that gets info f more than one senseThe manner of info thats received and disbursed through these three cortical areas suggests that sensory systems can be categorized into three organizing principlesa Sensory system are characterized by hierarchical organization the level of the eye there are specialized receptors that have one function to transform light into signals that are meaningful to the nervous systemthe level of the association cortex the is to integrate info f a number of sensory systems into a perception of the outside world as we move f the lowest to the highest levels of sensory systems neurons change f having onoff sensory functions to those the respond optimally to stimuli of greater complexity and specificityb Each level of the organization contains functionally distinct cortical areasNot all areas are processing the same kind of infowithin each of the three levels of the sensory cortex are specific areas that are involved in processing specific aspects of the same sensory stimulus some cells respond to color while others respond to specific orientationc The process of sensory info occurs in parallel throughout the cortexInitially sensory systems were viewed as serial circuitsif one part of the circuit was missing then the flow of info was stoppedthe pointwhich the break occurredbut info is actually transmitted throughout the sensory system in parallel each level receiving some info f the level immediately below it and some info f levels below that thus decreasing the reliance of the system on any one level of processingSomewhere around 400700 nanometers electromagnetic EM lights is visible to the human eyeall EM energy is lightShort wave lengths can be see as violet blue and green while longer wavelengths are seen as red or orange Light enters the eye through the pupil and is focused on the retina layered structure o the back of rhe eye the contains five diff types of cells receptors horizontal cells bipolar cells amacrine cells and retinal ganglion cells Receptors converts light energy into neural responses which are then transmitted to the brain via the retinal ganglion cellsthe receptors in the retina rods and cones are specialized and active during diff types of lighting condt Amacrine and horizontal cells takes cares of lateral commn btwn the various cells commn btwn cones and other cones Bipolar cells synapse on the receptors and they in turn synapse on the retinal ganglion cells whose axons leave the retina via the optic nerve Rods are active in low light levels and very sensitive to movement
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