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PSYB65 Ch 12

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

PSYB65 Ch 12 1859 Darwins On the Origin of SpeciesAll living creatures have been and continue to be subject to selection eg the mating preferences of birds speciationEvolutionary psychology a psychological approach that attempts to apply the principles of evolution adaptation and selection to human bhvr Darwin and Wallace disd the principles of natural selection with the help of these ideas a Linnaeus classification of organisms based on structure he observed commonalities in structure among related speciesb Lyell and Smith supported the notion that the earth was far older than thought and when changes occurred they occurred in a predictable manner in the strata of the earth w more primitive forms occurring in the oldest strata of the earthc Malthus observed how food supplies affect popnpopn grow exponentially until they surpass their food supply which leads to a struggle for existence survival of the fittestHistorical Theory of Evolution a Variation the differences in morphology that are characteristic of all ppl b Inheritance passing differences in morphology f one generation to the nextc Differential reproduction organisms that are the best suited for an envt will show enhanced survival and will reproducea greater rate than those that are less suited to the envt The mechanism underlying the above changes is natural selection it requires that all ppl are unique and that characteristics that give an animal a reproductive advantage will result in the magnification of these traits in the popn When a trait results in a reproductive advantage and is select for its called adaptation a system of properties or mechanism molded by natural selection bc it helped solve to a specific adaptive problem posed by the physical chemical developmental ecological demographic social or informational envt Another form of selection that also exists is sexual selection where the inheritance of a gene is based on the genes ability to help an individual reproduce there are 2 typesa Intersexual selection where the members of one sex choose mates f the opposite sex on the basis of specific traits eg men look for young and pretty women to mate w and women place more importance on their mates resources b Intrasexual selection where the members of the same sex compete w each other for partners of the opposite sex eg men might display their wealth more often to impress women while women will enhance their youthfulness and attractiveness to impress menHistorical theory of evolution the original theory of evolutionWe now know that traits are passed on by genes pieces of DNA that pass traits f generation to generation and that the original source of variation is the random mutation spontaneousrandom changes to a gene or genes Modern synthetic theory of evolution the current version of evolutionary theory DNA deoxyribonucleic acid makes up chromosomesChromosome where a persons genes are located Crash Biology
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