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Ted Petit (185)

PSYB65- Ch 8

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

PSYB65 Ch 8 Hearing and Language ProcessingLocalizing objects is the domain of vision but the auditory system is also efficientindicating object position in addition to object presenceThe Properties of Sound Understanding how the brain creates the experience of soundFrequency refers to the rate of vibration or the number of waves cycles completed per unit of time indicated in hertz Hz which is measured in cycles per second Humans are most sensitive to sounds btwn 10004000 H roughly the frequencies of the human voice Pitch perception of frequencies of sounds the higher the frequency the higher the perceived pitch Loudness perception of the amplitude of the sound wavewaves of different amplitudesintensities differ in the degree to which the high point condensation of air and the low point rarefaction of air of the wave differ f each other Amplitude the size of the waveform in sound this corresponds to the loudness of the sound and measurement is indicated in decibels dB the sound pressure of a source when compared to a standard intensity of 1012 wattsComplexity the number of different wave frequencies contained in a sound in sound this this corresponds to timbre Timbre the perception of a sounds complexity which differs f instrument to instrument timbre is how to describe how violins sound different f trumpets Fundamental frequency the intended frequency of an instrument an instrument usually produces overtones that arefrequencies higher than but mathematically related to the fundamental frequency Fourier analysis a mathematical process where complicated sounds are broken down into simple component waves Sounds perceived by your left ear are not identical to those perceived by your right ear Auditory perceptual system detects a multitude of different parametersthe same time including the implied tone of speech Prodosy the conveyance of meaning by varying the intonation in speech including changes in pitch tempo intensity and rhythmThe Ear Outer ear catch and amplified sound wavesThe ear transforms vibrations in the air into neural signals a process called transductionSound waves enter the funnellike out ear passing the pinna the outermost visible portion of the ear through auditory meatus the hole of the ear leading in the external ear canal that amplifies the vibrations and channels them into the tympanic membrane ear drumThe eardrum vibrates and passes along via three bones malleus hammer incus anvil stapes stirrupcollectively these bones are referred to as ossiclesVibrations are then transmitted through the oval window and vibrations transmits into the cochlea through the cochlear fluidVibrations of this fluid cause a bending of both the basilar membrane and tectorial membrane which then elicits neural activity in the hair cells receptors of the auditory system and they connect w the auditory nerveCochlea contains the components of the inner ear and the inner and outer hair cells
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