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Psychology (9,573)
PSYB65H3 (479)
Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2: Neuroanatomy

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Chapter 2 Neuroanatomy Module 21 Cells of the Nervous SystemNeurons specialized cells of the nervous system that react and respond to stimuli and learn and store information about their external environmentGlial cells specialized cells of the nervous system that provide support Neurons and Glia Structure and FunctionGross Anatomy of the NeuronDendrites receive incoming information increase surface area with branches as many as 100 000 yinputs o Spines grow and retract in response to experience Soma contains genetic machinery and most metabolic machinery needed for common cellular yfunctionsAxon sends neural information to other neurons only one that can branchyo Myelin insulation that speeds rate of conduction Synapse gap across which information is sent y Presynaptic vs postsynaptic y Terminal Button end of the axon from which information is senty Neurotransmitters neurochemical message that is transmitted across synapse and converted into yelectronic messageInternal Anatomy of the NeuronPlasma membrane bilayer of phospholipids proteins and channelsy Organelles genetic nucleus synthetic ribosomes endoplasmic reticulum and metabolic ymitochondriaNucleus packages and controls all the genetic in a cell and processes them to form proteins needed yStructure and Function of NeuronsStructurally unipolar bipolar multipolary Interneurons no axons or small axons to integrate information y Functionally motor neurons sensory neurons interneuronsy Afferent vs Efferent yGliaSatellite cells support cells outside the brain and spinal cord y Astrocytes largest and star shaped fill space between neurons affecting their growth blood brain ybarrier nutritive and metabolic functionsregulate extracellular environment and spread of neurotransmitters can store neurotransmitters Oligodendrocytes myelinate axons of CNS many segments to many axonsy Schwann cells myelinate axons of PNS one segmenty Microglia smallest phagocytes that remove debris are made outside the CNS by macrophages yexcess in MS and alzheimers Communication within the Neuron The Action Potential Resting potential 70mV due to ion concentration gradients due to semi permeability of membrane and sodium potassium pump Ion Channels proteins in channel through which ions move
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