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Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3: Techniques in Neuropsychology

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Chapter 3 Techniques in Neuropsychology investigating how the brain produces behaviour in humans Module 31 Study of the Damaged Nervous SystemUsed to study damaged brains and animal brains but looking at live normal brains gives more info y The Scientific MethodEmpirical method to be as objective as possible using standardized tests or measurements Replication of results to confirm them done by experimenter to ensure it wasnt by chance and by other experimenters to ensure it can be generalized Control ability to manipulate something to determine effects andor eliminate unwanted variable and have a comparison sample Confounding variables unwanted variableHypothesis prediction that determines methods used statement that can be rejectedIndependent variable one manipulated to see effect on behaviour Dependant variable response or behaviour experimenter measuresQuasiexperimental study no control over allocations of groups as cant manipulate that variable in lots of psych experiments Converging operations common conclusion reached by examining a number of studies that approach question from different perspectives Phineas Gage had rod go through his head survived but changed personalityNon human animal modelsUsed alot of rats as they thought there were minimal differences between them and humans and ythought they would give info about learning memory and emotionThorndike Morgan Atson using animals gives more control over aspects of life cycle can randomly yassort and isolate causal conclusionsAlot has been learned using animals imprinting in geese effect of enriched environment in rats yalcohol effects models of neurological disordersLimitations yo many only focus on only one facet of an organism and ignore other important aspects Delayed non matching to sample task animal sees reward paired with stimulus A then yhas to pick novel stimulus to get reward questionable ethological validity do all species do it o Cant allows be generalized to other speciesBut study of simpler systems can provide insight that could not be obtained using yhumans due to ethical reasons and its complexity There is alot of overlap between basic properties and layout of the nervous system y Behaviourally can be linked too ex Learning but not really cognitively ex languagey Cognitive skills like semantic categorization and language can be studied in nonhumans yex Rats pigeons chimps gorillas and parrots o Differ in complexity of the nervous systemEx Rats and humans act differently to MPTP in the basal ganglia y Strengths yo Can control extrageneous variables o Can perform experiments o Can conclude causality
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