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Canada (158,053)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYB65H3 (479)
Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14: Human Brain Damage

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Chapter 14 Human Brain Damage Module 141 Causes of Brain Damage TumorsTumor mass of new and abnormal tissue that is not physiologically beneficial to its surrounding yenvironments aka neoplasmsSpace occupying lesions foreign objects that cause damage to the central nervous system by yputting pressure on it and occupying space normally occupied by CNSInfiltrate enter and destroy surrounding tissue y Encapsulated stay in one area y Benign unlikely to reoccur y Malignant more likely to reoccuryTumors Arising from Glial Cells o Gliomas tumors that arise from glial cells Astrocytomas tumors that arise from the growth of astrocytes slow growth and rarely ymalignant can infiltrate or be encapsulatedRemove by surgery if accessible if not chemotherapyGlioblastoma grow quickly and highly malignant infiltrate y Use chemotherapy as they infiltrate making it hard to exciseMedulloblastoma aka primitive neuroectodermal tumor 26 of gliomas highly ymalignant and infiltrating close to brainstem so poor prognosis use chemotherapy Tumors arising from the meninges o Meningiomas tumors that grow out of and remain attached to the meninges dura materEncapsulated most are relatively benign but are malignant types y Harmful due to the pressure it exertsy Treatment surgery except if its between the hemispheres yMetastatic TumorsMetastases secondary tumors that form from migrated tumor tissue outside CNS mostly o Simple metastatic tumors when only one tumor forms at one siteTreatment surgery or radiological treatment yo Multiple metastatic tumors most cases more than one tumor mostly comes from lungs to CNSWhole brain radiotherapy or chemotherapy yeuropsychological effects of tumors o Effect due to infiltration and compression vary depending on the location o Can also cause seizures and release toxic substances in the brainCerebrovascular DisordersCerebrovascular disorderaccident when blood supply to the brain is interrupted Cerebral ischemia lack of blood supply to the brain Infarct area of damaged or dead neurons due to sever or long lasting cerebral ischemia Thrombosis blood clot forms within a cerebral blood vessel gradual o Atherosclerosis fatty deposits build up in walls of blood vessels causes thrombosis Embolism a clot that travels in bloodstream from one part of the body to another blocking the flow at that location sudden
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