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Chapter 13

Human Brain - Chapter 13.docx

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Ted Petit

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Chapter 13Neural Development and Developmental Disordersbeh changes often correspond with periods of brain growthreorganization MODULE Neural Development Early Development early in embryonic life 3 weeks the neural plate forms from the ectoderm of the embryoneural plateis a patch of cells that are on the dorsal surface of the embryo o eventually becomes the nervous system cells of the dorsal ectoderm in the neural plate are stem cells that are pluripotent meaning that they have the potential to develop into diff types of nervous system cellscannot turn into an other type of cellthen the neural plate starts to form a groove which by embryonic day 24fuses to form the neural tube diff sections of the tbe become diff parts of the neural tubeinterior surface becomes the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord35mnths of gestationproliferationthe cells of the neural tube within the ventricular zone are rapidly dividing by day 403 bmps that eventuall formforebrain midbrain hindbrain of CNScells also migrate from the interior ventricular zone to their final location by following certain types of gliand 2 monthtelencephalon undergoes tremendous growthdeveloping the cortical plate as migration occursdeepest layers of neuron develop firstonce the neurons migrate the being to grow axonsdendrites and begin to differentiate into their final formo must get to their approp target and make functional synaptic connect o axons and dendrites follow chemicalsarranging themselves in a orderly fashion in a position relative to their initial place cell differentiation is essentially complete at birth the brain is particularly vulnerable during the last 45mnths of gestation problems at an stage can cause sign impact on the final form of the brainthe type of CNS malformation can tell us something about when it occurredcrainorachischisisa fatal defect of the neural tube that results when there is a complete failure of the closure of the neural tube the CNS appears as a groove in the top of the head and bodyspina bifida a neural tube defect that is characterized by spinal cord defects not necessarily fatal though it can vary in its severityo diff associated w locomotion rather than cognAnencephalygenerally fatal failure of the rostral part of the neural plate to fuse characterized by a general absence of the cerebral hemispheres7mthneurons migrated and differentiated into final formssynpatogenesisproduction of synapsesdendritic branchingbranching of dendrites that can result in increased number of synapses more than needed in the adult brain slowlyspines o neurons undergo a long period of the above 2
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