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Chapter 8

Chapter 8: Hearing and Language Processing

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Ted Petit

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Chapter 8 Hearing and Language Processing Module 81 The Auditory System The Properties of Sound o Frequency rate of vibration or number of wave cycles per unit time HzHuman range 2020 000Hz max sensitivity 10004000Dogs 20 000Hz Fish 2000 o Speed 340ms o Pitches depend on frequency higher frequency higher pitch o Loudness the amplitude of the sound wave o Amplitude sound pressure of the source o Timbre the complexity of the sound o Fundamental frequency intended frequency o Overtones at frequencies higher than but related to the fundamental frequency vary in intensity o Fourier analysis break down complex sounds into simple components o Sound is always moving and changing o Prosody tone of voice that can indicate cues The Earo Capable of detecting and amplifying subtle vibrations and transforming them into neural signals o PartsPinna outermost visible portion of the earAuditory meatus hole External ear canal amplifies vibrations and channels them onTympanic membraneeardrum vibrates and passes vibration along ossiclesOssicles malleus incus and stapes each successive bone amplifies the vibration and transmits vibrationOval window has a membrane over it that transmits vibrations into the cochlea through the cochlear fluidCochlea shell has inner receptors and outer modulate hair cells more outer than inner but inner serve as receptors Cochlear fluid vibrations of the fluid cause a bending of both basilar membrane and tectorial membraneBasilar membrane and tectorial membrane bending of it elicits neural activity in hair cellsHair cells are receptor cells of the auditory systemOrgan of Corti hair cells their cilia and cells that support themOuter ear pinna and external ear canal that catches and amplifies sound wavesMiddle ear chamber and contents between tympanic membrane and oval window signal is transduced to variations in air pressure to mechanical energyInner ear mechanical energy is turned into neural activity o tonotopicFrequency specific sensory organization as you go down toward apex more sensitive to lower and lower frequencies o Functioning may be influence by cognition ex Experience can alter outer hair cells o Efferent projections from cochlea show differential activation in different conditions
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