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Chapter 3

PSYB65 - Chapter 3 - Sep 27, 2010-Oct 4, 2010

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Chapter 3 Techniques in Neuropsychology: Investigating How the Brain Produces Behaviour in Humans Module 3.1: Study of the Damaged Nervous System The Scientific Mind - Empirical method (empirical means observation) the way scientists gather information, using standardized tests or measurements with a high level of objectivity. - Principle of Control ability to manipulate something of interest to determine the effects Includes the ability to exclude unwanted variables from the study Refers to having an appropriate comparison sample, so that deviations from this sample can be observed. - Hypothesis prediction; formed as a statement that can be rejected. Help to avoid questions that cannot be disproved - Independent variables to determine how the behaviour is affected - Dependent variables the response or behaviour that the experimenter measures (should be directly related to the manipulation of independent variable) - Much of the research in neuropsychology is only quasi-experimental. (ethically and practically, we cannot manipulate the independent variable directly) - Converging operations the use of a number of studies that approach the question from a variety of perspectives, and the examination of the results to support a common conclusion. Nonhuman Animal Models - Provides important information about psychological constructs, e.g. learning, memory and emotionality - Delayed nonmatching to sample task the animal observes the food reward paired with stimulus A; then the animal is required to pick the novel stimulus B to receive the reward. (Involves food reward and food-deprived nonhuman animal) Summary of the Strengths and Limitations of Nonhuman Animal Research Strengths Limitations Can control extraneous variables Some topics may not be suitable Can perform experiments There are striking differences between human and nonhuman nervous systems Can conclude causality Might study one behaviourbrain area in isolation Can look for mechanisms in a simpler system Might be very artificial Can model disease processes Human brain has functional diversity Cognitive Testing - Standardized cognitive tests are standardized in two ways: 1. Always given to participants in the same way 2. Always scored in the same manner (E.g. if a person were to be given the same test byb two different neuropsychologists, that person should receive the same score on both tests and should not notice any deviation in how the test was delivered. however, there are always small differences) source.doc 1 www.notesolution.com
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