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Chapter 10

PSYB65 - Chapter 10 - Dec 6, 2010

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Ted Petit

Chapter 10: Spatial Ability Module 10.1: Spatial Ability WHAT IS SPATIAL ABILITY - When we process the position, direction, or movement of objects or points in space, we are using some form of spatial ability. - At least 6 discrete basic components 1. Targeting (how well you can throw an object at a target) 2. Spatial orientation (how well you can recognize items even when they are placed in different orientations, or directions) 3. Spatial location memory (how well you can remember the locations of objects) 4. Spatial visualization (how well you can imagine how well pieces of an object would go together) 5. Disembedding (how well you can find figures that are hidden within other pictures) 6. Spatial perception (how well you can determine where horizontal or vertical is in the real world even if you are given distracting information) HEMISPHERIC REPRESENTATION OF SPACE - Left hemisphere: language processing; right hemisphere: spatial processing - Neurologically normal people can identify the location of a dot more readily when it occurs in the left visual field (projected to the right hemisphere). - Depth perception ability to determine relative position of an object; divides into 2 types: 1. Local depth perception ability to use detailed features of objects point by point to assess relative position. Determination of which object is in front of another shows a left visual field advantage in normals, whereas both right and left hemisphere lesions disrupt local depth perception. 2. Global depth perception ability to use the difference between the information reaching each eye to compute the entire visual scene. Brain computes the differences in the images presented to the two eyes and fuses these images to produce depth. No obvious features, so local depth perception cues cannot be responsible for this effect. - Line orientation eg being able to differentiate between letter b and p Right hemisphere advantage for both tactile and visual assessment of line orientation If lines can be described verbally, e.g. horizontal line and vertical line, then left hemisphere advantage. - Object geometry spatial properties of an object that are used to determine whether or not an item shares similar spatial properties with another - Detection of motion is related to increased activity in the right hemisphere, particularly in occipital, temporal, and parietal areas associated with the processing of visual information. - Mental rotation rotation of an object that does not occur overtly. In many mental rotation tasks, participants are often presented with two or more items that are rotated in different positions and asked to determine whether they are the same or different. PARTIETAL LOBES - Ventral visual stream what pathway useful for identifying objects; Dorsal visual stream how pathway; to know how motor acts must be performed to manipulate an object. - Parietal areas 5 and 7 allow stable cognitive maps to be made. www.notesolution.com
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