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Chapter 12

PSYB65 - Chapter 12 - Sep 13, 2010

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Chapter 12 Humans, Human Brains, and Evolution Module 12.1: Evolution of Humans Evolutionary psychology attempts to apply the principles of adaptation and selection to human behaviour. - How our environment has affected the development of our species as well as the specific demands and subsequent adaptations that evolved to deal with these challenges. Evolutionary Theory - Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace The classification of organisms based on structure by Carolus Linnaeus, which he observed that there were commonalities in structure among related species. Charles Lyell and William Smith supported the notion that the earth was far older than was previously thought. When changes occurred, they occurred in a predictable manner in the strata of the earth Thomas Malthus observed that food supplies affect populations, similar to the evolutionary theory (survival of the fittest). He suggested that populations grow exponentially until they surpass their food supply, which leads to a struggle for existence. Historical theory of Evolution - Variation, inheritance and differential reproduction All individuals vary, which results in differences in morphology. These differences in morphology can be passed from one generation to the next. These individual differences in morphology result in variations in success in the environment, in terms of survival and reproduction. - Natural selection competition among individuals for survival to reproduce that determines which genes remain and which genes disappear. Requires that all individuals are unique and that characteristics that give an animal a reproductive advantage will result in the magnification of these traits in population. Adaptation when a trait results in a reproductive advantage and is selected for. (Must be inherited from one generation to the next) Different environments may result in the selection of different traits Because the environment is not static and variation never truly goes away, natural selection must be continually occurring. - Sexual selection competition among individuals for reproduction that determine a genes fate. 1. Intersexual selection one sex chooses a mate from among members of the other sex on the basis of specific traits. 2. Intrasexual selection members of the same sex compete for partners of the opposite sex. - Traits are passed on by genes and that the original source of variation is the random mutation of these genes. - The current version of evolutionary theory (referred to as the modern synthetic theory of evolution the modern synthesis. Modern Synthesis source.doc 1 www.notesolution.com
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