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Canada (161,538)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB65H3 (479)
Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 - Emotion

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Ted Petit

Chapter 9: Emotion Module 9.1 Emotion What Is Emotion? Emotional states have two components: the physical sensation of the emotion and the cognitive experience or feeling of the emotion itself. Basic Emotional States One of the first individuals to recognize the significance of basic emotional states in humans was Charles Darwin he said emotional stress occur innately in children and there are universal emotional states that all humans express The two limitations to Darwins study were: 1. He did not perform cross-cultural observations 2. He did not suggest emotional states being localized in the brain Ekman said that for an emotional state to be considered as basic it must: 1. Distinctive facial expression 2. Distinctive physiological state 3. Facial expressions and physiological states that occur together and are relatively difficult to separate 4. Almost instantaneous onset of the facial expression and physiological state, which lasts for only a brief duration. 5. Distinctive eliciting stimuli 6. Automatic appraisal of the eliciting stimuli, not a result of deliberate, cognitive appraisal 7. Similar expressions of emotional states in the related primates. These theories can be problematic because: o Some valid emotions that do not have a corresponding unique facial expression (jealously, greed, lust) www.notesolution.com o Emotional states are personal so it is difficult to be sure what an individual is experiencing without a linguistic confirmation to go along with it o The other eight additional basic emotional states that Ekman suggests there might be are: awe, contempt, embarrassment, excitement, guilt, interest, shame, and surprise. The Adaptive Value of Emotional States Emotional states act as signals to ensure that behaviours occur appropriately, especially in social situations With social anxiety, we want to be liked by other members in the group Secondary emotions are emotions that do not have characteristic facial expressions eg. Shame and pride but they have significant adaptive value they both relate to status and within the group Darwin hypothesized that the constancy of facial expressions in nonhuman animals also serve some adaptive purpose We are willing to attribute emotional states to other mammals because we evolved from a common ancestor and therefore share many neural systems for the expression of emotional states Theories of Emotional States to understand emotional states , we need to understand how external stimuli produced the emotional state The theories of emotional state include: James-Lange theory, Cannon-Bard Theory, Schachter-Singer theory, the somatic marker theory (proposed by Damasio) and the appraisal theory (proposed by Arnold) James Lange Theory Here, the cognitive aspects of emotional states are secondary to the physiological response Emotionally provocative stimulus -Physiological responseemotion Cognitive experience Cannon-Bard Theory www.notesolution.com
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