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Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Introduction to Neuropsychology Module1.1 What is Neuropychology?  Psychology: the study of behavior, an attempt to describe, explain and predict behavior and somtimes how to change behaviour.  Neuropsychology: is the study of the relation btwn behavior and the activity of the brain; a specialty within the larger field of pychology; attempt to describe, explain, predict, and change behavior  2 main types of neuropychologists: Clinical neuropsychologists (branch concerned with psychological assessment, management and rehabilitation 复 原 of neurologicaldisease and injury);Experimental neropychology/Cognitive neuropsychology/Cognitive neuroscience( branch that focuses on how human behaviour arises from brain activity) Heart, Mind and Brain: The Early History of Neuropsychology  History of discipline important because shows development and what is left to discover  History also shows the mistakes made in the past and wrong understandings  Empedocles: philosopher who believed all matter was composed of fire, air, water and earth; believed that the heart was the source of human behavior-cardio-centric hypothesis  Aristotle: because the heart is normally very active and warm , he concluded the heart was the source of thought and sensation; argues that brain served as a radiator, cooling blood (heat rises)  Hippocrates& Galen: cepholocentric hypothesis or brain hypothesis- brain is responsible for human behaviour  People did realize very early that damage to the brain causes death and other results although didn't realize the brain was important in higher cognitive functions  Trephinations were performed- making hole in skull of a live person  Mind and brain often thought of as different  In fact, blood helps cool the brian The Mind-Brain problem  Rene rescartes: presented a "reflexive"theory of control of behavior- described flow of "animal spirits" through "valvules" within nervous tissue filaments; external stimuli would move skin, moving filaments, releasing animal spiritand innervatinmuscles; accounted for involuntary behaviours but not for voluntary ones; believed that voluntary behaviours depended on the interface of the mechanistic body with a rational , decision making soul- took place in pineal gland because there is only one and not multiple like other structures in the body and it is also surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid ( a clear fluid that supports and cleanses the brain); belived cavities of cerebrospinal fluid were reservoirs for the animal spirits necessary for action hence voluntary avtion would produce small movements of the pineal gland, resulting in the release of animal spirits throughout the body and producing movement of the body  Somtimes analogies类比 of brain function resemble technologies at the time they were composed (descartes theory relies on hydraul)cs  Brain unlike machines because machines mostly always perform the same way in same situations where as any living organism placed in an identical situation multiple times behaves differently in the situations; biological systems are less predictable  Dualism: mind and body are separate but interacting entities (like in descartes theory but he didn't explain how)  Monism: opposing position; posits mind and body are unitary  Either way brain influences/ is involved in behavior and thought Module 1.2 The Recent History of Neuropsychology  Neuropsychology is young but it pull information from other eastablished disciplines like anthropology, biology etc Cataloging the Effects of Lesions  Legollois: discovered lesioning( destroying tissue in )medulla resulted in the immediate cessation of breathing( respiratory system in medulla- first widely accepted function to be localized within the brain)  Bell & Magendie: observed that the dorsal roots( the nerves that leave the spinal cord on the back of the spinal cord) had sensory functions whereas the ventral roots( nerves that leave spinal cord on the front) were responsible for motor functions; led way to explore more segregatoins in nervous system  Gall & Spurzheim: Gall sated that there were 27 distinct cognitive abilities (which he called faculties) that could be localized on the cortex of the human brain: believed mathematical ability, memory for words and spoken language were mediated by separate areas of the brain (true); also believed cortex behaved like muscles, in that increased size of an area was associated with increased function; increase in size of cortical area would result in deformation of skull or a bump which could be measured by using a technique called cranioscopy:measurements of the skull and pronouncements on personality became known as phrenology  Flourens: against phrenology;observed that the cerebellumwas responsible for coordinated movement and that the medulla performed vital functions for the organism; observed that sometimes following lesions,function may be restored; believed in equipotentialiry (cortex functioned as a whole and that there was no functional specialization within cortex)  Goltz: also believed in equipotentiality; concluded from experiments that size of lesion and not location affect behaviour in animals hence cortex could not be specialized for specific cognitive functions (no localization)  Ferrier: results of lesion experiments were consistent with the localization of sensory and motor functions within discrete portions of the cortex  Fritsch& hitzig: demonstrated that frontal cortex of the dog was essential for the production of normal movement; lesioning portions of the frontal cortex resulted in abnormal motor movement and intact sensation; finally proved localization of cognitive functions  Broca: localized first higher cognitive function (language); gained acceptance for the role of frontal cortex in the production of speech; based his conclusions on the observations of an individual with left frontal damage; casestudy of tan- circumscribed lesion of the left frontal lobe( broca's area) resulted in an individual who was incapable of productive speech/articulate speech (but still could understand) and this was known as aphemia/Broca's aphasia  Tow components of speech that Broca did not study: the emotional tone of speech( prosody) & the loss of comprehension of languages associated with the preservation of speech  Hughlings-Jackson: first articulated that the content and emotional tone of speech were separable; observed that speech is a complex process that involves linguistic ability as well as complex motor skills; suggested there could be dissociations btwn the semantic content of language( the meaning) and the emotional tone  Wernicke: suggested there was an auditory center( wernicke's area) in the temporal lobes; when damaged, would result in an individual who could still produce speech but would be incapable of using words correctly and be unable to understand the speech of others- called Wernicke's aphasia; suggested that total or global aphasia( complete inability to understand or produce languages) would result from lesion of both Wernicke's and Broca's area Focus on the Neuron  The working unit of the brain is the neuron  Anatomical Studies  3 main hurdles碍 had to be overcome to study the cellular constituents of the brain: size of cells, texture of brain, lack of pigmentation in much of the brain  Magnification was used to observe neurons in 1800s  Cell doctrine- by Schwann; proposed all living tissue was composed of microscop
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