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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 psyb65.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit
Semester
Fall

Description
Sanchika K 09.12.2012 PSYB65 Notes Chapter 1 : Introduction to Neuropsychology What is Neuropsychology?  Psychology is the study of behaviour- describe, explain and predict behavior  Neuropsychology is also the study of behaviour but it is also the study of the relation between behaviour and the activity of the brain  Clinical psychology is concerned with psychological assessment, management, and rehabilitation of neurological disease and injury.  Experimental psychology focuses on how human behaviour arises from brain activity o Explains how patterns of behavioural impairments can be explained in terms of disruption to the damaged neural component. Heart, Mind, and Brain: The Early History of Neuropsychology  Cardiac, cardiocentric hypothesis o Empedocles was a philosopher who believed that the heart was the source of human behavior  Aristotle came to the same conclusion and concluded the heart was the source of thoughts and sensation, the brain served as a radiator, cooling the blood  Cephalocentric hypothesis/ brain hypothesis o Argues by Hippocrates and Galen that the brain is responsible for function The Mind-Body Problem  Rene Descartes o Presented the reflexive theory o The flow of animal spirits controls behaviour o He identified the interaction with the pineal gland and cerebrospinal fluid was important o He believed that the CBF acted as reservoir where the animal spirits were kept  In the 1940s and 1950s the brain was thought as a switchboard, forging new connections when learning  Dualism o Descartes proposed that the mind and body interact with each other  Monism o Opposite of dualism Sanchika K 09.12.2012 PSYB65 Notes Cataloging the Effects of lesions  Jean-Cesar Leggallois o French physiologist who discovered that lesioning the medulla resulted in the immediate cessation of breathing  Charles Bell and Francois Magendie o Studied the nerves that excited the spinal cord o The dorsal roots that leave the spinal cord on the back had sensory functions o The ventral roots were responsible for motor function  Franz Joseph Gall and Johann Spurzheim o Suggested that the cortex was functionally localized o Suggested that there were twenty-seven distinct cognitive abilities o Gall also suggested that cognitive skills, such as mathematical ability, memory for words and spoken language were also mediated at the cortex o Gall also believed the cortex behaved like a muscle  The increased size as associated with the increased function  The increase in the size of the cortical area would result in the deformation of the skull  Which is measured by a technique called cranioscopy  Phrenology- measurements and pronouncements on personality  Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens o Was strongly against phrenology o Is a French anatomist o Firm believer of empirical method o Performed studies on nonhuman animals using lesioning techniques to study corresponding effects on behavior o Flouren’s observed  Cerebellum was associated with coordinated movements  Following lesions function may be restored  David Ferrier o The results of the lesions experiments were consistent with the localization of sensory and motor functions within discrete portions of the cortex  Gustav Fritsch+ Eduard Hitzig o The frontal cortex was essential for the production of normal movement o Lesions of the frontal cortex resulted in abnormal motor movements and intact sensations  Paul Broca o Presented a case study where the patient had damage to the left front lobe and the individual was incapable of productive speech Sanchika K 09.12.2012 PSYB65 Notes o Patient had lost the capacity for speech but retained the ability to understand language o He referred it to aphemia which was then known as Broca’s aphasia  Carl Wernicke o The Wernicke’s center in the temporal lobes that, when damaged, would result in an individual who could still produce speech but would be incapable of using words correctly and be unable to understand the speech of others  Called Wernicke’s aphasia  Total or global aphasia  Complete inability to understand or produce language  Results from lesions of both the Wernicke’s and Broca’s area Focus on the Neurons  Working unit is the neuron  Anatomical studies o The size of the cells  Range from 0.01 to 0.05 millimeters in diameter most are 0.02 millimeter o The texture of the brain o Lack of pigmentation in much of the brain  Histology o The study of thinly sliced, fixed, and stained tissues o Nissl Stain  Developed by Franz Nissl  Distinguishes neurons from other cells in the brain, staining the central portion of neurons o Golgi Stain  Developed by Camillo Golgi  Tissue as soaked in silver solution some of the neurons would become dark  Through this he was able to determine that the cells had three parts the dendrite, soma and cell body o Stantiago Ramon y Cajal  Used stain to trace the connections of the brain  Golgi  Proposed that neurons would fuse together to form a continuous circuit  Cajal  Proposed that neurons are not continuous and that they must communicate by contact  Later called the neuron doctrine and was supported o Electrical Properties of the Neuron Sanchika K 09.12.2012 PSYB65 Notes  Galvani an
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