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Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 1


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

University of Toronto 1 PSYB65: Human Brain and Behavior Sayanutha Niranjan Chapter 1 Introduction to Neuropsychology The 10% Myth: Claim that humans use only 10% of their brain, only a myth. The truth being that the brain plays a major role in producing human behavior Psychology: The study of behaviour and attempting to describe, explain, predict and change behaviors. Neuropsychology: also the study of behaviour, including the relation between behaviour and the activity of the brain, assuming that the brain is partially responsible for one’s behaviour. There are 2 types of neuropsychology: Clinical neuropsychology: the branch of neuropsychology dealing with psychological assessment, management, and rehabilitation of neurological disease and injury. Experimental Neuropsychology: also known as cognitive neuroscience, the branch of neuropsychology focusing on how human behaviour arises from brain activity, including how behavioural changes can be explained in terms of neural components. Heart, Mind and Brain: The Early History of Neuropsychology Empedocles: A philosopher who proposed the idea of “the cardiac” or “cardiocentric hypothesis”, where the heart was the source of behavior. This hypothesis still has an effect on pop culture today, like how humans associate love with the heart and not the brain. Aristotle: also came to the conclusion that the heart was the centre involved with thought and sensation because it is warm and active and that since heat rises, the brain was the blood cooling centre. – He was incorrect ! Hippocrates and Galen: proposed the “brain hypothesis” or “cephalocentric hypothesis” where the brain is responsible for thought and sensation. Also, that the brain’s ventricles and cerebrospinal fluid (supports, nourishes, cleans brain) played a role in cognition, which was later corrected by Magnus and Vesalius. Finger (1994) – Suggests that there was recognition that damaging the brain would result in the death or disabling of an individual Trephination: producing a hole in the skull to produce therapeutic effects in ancient times. It was thought that the brain interpreted signals and that the mind was a separate entity entirely. --- Early theories of brain function was not recognized for higher cognitive function ; brain was seen as a passive interpreter of signals MIND  BRAIN 1 University of Toronto 2 PSYB65: Human Brain and Behavior Sayanutha Niranjan Mind-Body Problem:  René Descartes proposed a “reflexive theory” of controlling behavior describes as how an external stimuli would move the skin, in turn moving the filaments, releasing animal spirits and innervating the muscles.  It could not account for voluntary behavior or the “variability in behavior”.  Descartes believed the voluntary behaviors depended on a mechanical body with a decision-making soul, located in the pineal gland since it doesn’t have a left and right component and was surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid (containing animal spirits which produce movement during voluntary action). Dualism: an idea proposed by Descartes that the mind and body are separate but interact. Monism: the idea that the mind and body are one. The Recent History of Neuropsychology Lesioning: destroying tissue in the medulla was discovered by Jean-Cesar Legallois to stop breathing. Magendie and Bell: discovered that the dorsal roots has sensory functions and the ventral roots had motor functions, which suggested that the brain could also be divided for functional as well as anatomical reasons. Franz Joseph Gall: states that the brain was divided into 27 different areas called faculties, which could be found on the cortex of the brain. He also believed the cortex acted as a muscle, where a larger area was associated with a larger function. This increase in size(associated with increased function) would cause a bump, which could be examined by cranioscopy. This measurement along with personality became known as phrenology. Flourens: was a strong believer in phrenology and did experiments with it.  For example if one who was good at music had a bump in the music centre of the head, and another good at music didn’t, it was assumed that the second person was better at a different aspect of music and therefore had the bump elsewhere.  He concluded that the cerebellum was important to movement and the medulla was important to vital processes.  Also, he found that regions with injury might restore function, not to the one area but to all areas, as he believed the brain was equipotent and functioned as a whole.  It was later determined by Goltz that the size of the lesion, not the location affected behavior. Ferrier and Hitzig: found that lesioning was consisted with localizing sensory and motor functions, for example that lesion to the frontal cortex caused abnormal motor behavior and intact sensation.  Overall, Gall was right for the wrong reasons and Goltz and Flourens used the right technique with wrong conclusions. 2 University of Toronto 3 PSYB65: Human Brain and Behavior Sayanutha Niranjan  They also studied the relationship between the brain, movement and electricity by observing electrical stimulations in a dog’s brain as a result of movement.  Although many basic functions had been successfully localized within the brain (movement and respiration) the first cognitive function that was successfully localized was language Paul Broca: Anthropologist, was the first to gain widespread acceptance for the role of the frontal cortex in the production of speech  Examined a patient named “TAN” with a problem in speech’s brain and discovered a lesion or soft tissue on the anterior left hemisphere  now known as “BROCA’S AREA”  He discovered the deficit was in articulating speech and comprehension, and that the left hemisphere in the frontal cortex of the brain was responsible for speech in most people. Aphemia (Broca’s Aphasia): Broca’s term for being unable to speak but able to understand language. Some words are known, sentences are slow and spaced out but prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions, if, and, or are left out similar to telegraphs called agrammatism. They have trouble finding words (anomia), phenomic paraphasia, and sense sentences with same words/diff order as equal in meaning. Prosody: emotional tone of speech  Which Broca did not study directly, and the loss of comprehension of language. - Jackson proposed that content and tone were separable Jackson: content and tone in language were separable. He suggested there are possible dissociations between the content of language (the meaning) and the emotional tone. Carl Wernike: suggested there was an auditory centre (WERNIKE’S area) in the temporal lobes. When damaged, the individual could produce speech but not hear, comprehend, or put meaning on words.  This is known as Wernike’s aphasia, involving non-random meaningless word salad, neologisms (made up words), unawareness of condition, occurring without
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