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Chapter 9

chapter 9

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Chapter Nine Emotion is experienced win the self, although emotional state of an individual can be communicated to others Emotions vary in intensity and degree Plato and Aristotle: head was for reason, liver for desire, heart for anger Aristotle: temperature changes of heart= changes in emotional state; emotion occurred only when intellect engaged, whereas passion more instinctive Now: emotions are product of brain+ emotional states are product of both conscious and unconscious processing What is Emotion? Emotional states have 2 components: 1) physical sensation of emotion; 2) cognitive experience, or feeling, of emotion itself i.e. when angry, have physical sensation of heart pounding, dry mouth, increase in blood pressure, + feeling of anger to perceive emotional states, humans adept at monitoring physiological changes in their bodies+ in bodies of others i.e. changes in heart rate, blood pressure also self-monitor subjective cognitive states-why emotions that result in increases in heart rate, i.e. anxiety, happiness-rarely mistaken for ea other process cognitive +physical aspects of emotional states in distinct neural circuits-> work in concert to produce unified percept of emotion emotional states produce behaviours, both internal+ external Emotional states produce internal changes associated w autonomic nervous system i.e. increasesdecreases in heart rate, blood pressure, stomach motility (i.e. butterflies), perspiration External motor responses i.e. verbal statements, facial expressions, thoughts related to experience Emotional states in others can provoke emotional states in ourselves-> often react emotionally+ experience feelings in response to emotional states in others Basic Emotional States Charles Darwin: one of first individuals to recognize significance of basic emotional states in humans Book- The Expression of the Emotion in Man and Animals www.notesolution.com Suggested that emotional states occur innately in children+ not learned-> based on own children and colleagues in other countries Suggested universal emotional states that all humans express, primarily through invariant facial expressions Facial expressions evolved from similar expressions in nonhuman animals and served some adaptive purpose 2 limitations to Darwins theory: 1) did not perform cross-cultural observations but relied on anecdotal reports; 2) did not suggest that emotional state was localized win brain One of the first systematic cross-cultural studies of facial expressions: studied emotional expressions of Fore tribe in remote part of New Guinea-> never exposed to Western culture i.e. videotape, photographs Presented Fore w photographs of Europeans making faces characteristic of specific emotional states Fore asked to match faces to stories that illustrated particular emotional states+ to guess how people in photograph felt Reasoned that if emotional displays culturally mediatedlearned, then among divergent groups of people, should be sig variance in emotional facial displays+ in interpretation of these displays Results: Fore accurate in matching faces w stories+ attributing emotional states to expressions in photographs Fore also made facial expressions similar to those of Europeans in response to emotional stimuli Effects replicated in variety of cultures, children, individuals w brain damage, nonsighted individuals Even babies young as 4 mos. evaluate emotional expressions of others Individuals make same facial expressions to express same feelings Universal basic emotions that occur in all humans-> mediated by similar areas of brain View of basic emotional states still controversial+ even on what emotions constitute basic emotional states i.e. happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust= basic emotions; some consider surprise not as emotion but reflex Ekman suggests that for emotional state to be considered as basic, must exhibit following 7 elements: o Distinctive facial expression www.notesolution.com
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