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PSYC12H3 (294)
Chapter 2

PSYC12 Textbook chapter 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 2: Origin and Maintenance of Stereotypes and Prejudice THE FORMATION OF STEREOTYPES - CATEGORIZATION Cognitive psychologists found that the human brain seems to almost automatically classifycategorize similar objects in the environment. Prejudice researchers to change their conceptualization of the nature of stereotyping. Stereotypes were no longer regarded as the product of lazy thinking by the uneducated or those with moral deficiencies. Stereotypes as a natural consequence of cognition. - WHY WE CATEGORIZE Humans have a limited capacity cognitive system that cannot simultaneously process all the available information in our social environment. Because we have a need to understand and even anticipate the behaviour of others, humans have developed ways around our limited cognitive system. Categorization We also have the tendency to group characteristics with certain shared features. E.g. blondes have more fun. - TYPES OF CATEGORIZATION Race, gender, age: major ways we first categorize someone because these are the most immediate and obvious features of an individual, and because these categorizes yield much information about useful distinctions in social behaviour between those in different groups. (BasicPrimitive categories) Basic categories are used often in perceiving people that they are central points around which stereotypes develop. In MILLISECONDS, evoke the associated cognitions, beliefs, and feelings one has for that group. Others have suggested that stereotypes are not automatically activated for all stimuli. Macrae and his colleagues suggest that what the person categorizes a picture of an individual depends on the perceivers motives, cognitions, and affect. Only when the perceiver wants to quickly evaluate the target in the picture do stereotypes become activated as a useful means of arriving at an attitude toward the target. - INGROUPS AND OUTGROUPS How you partition people in these groups depends on your current, salient motives, fears, goals, and expectations. PAGE 29 Individuals who are part of an out-group are perceived to share similar characteristics, motives and other features. However, when it comes to our own 1 www.notesolution.com
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