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PSYC12H3 (294)
Chapter 5


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 5: Old-Fashioned vs. Modern Prejudice PSYC12 WHERE HAVE ALL THE BIGOTS GONE? From Katz & Braly to Civil Rights and Beyond - Katz & Braly 1933 landmark study – White college students were asked to indicate whether 84 traits described Caucasians or African Americans o Results indicate people held positive views of Caucasians and negative views of African Americans o Dovidio and Gaertner 1991 – revisited this study using this measure and it was found that these views have become less negative over time o Due to changes in legislation, social public policy and popular culture reflected this change as well (music, movies and television) - Old fashioned racism is the type of openly hostile prejudice that characterized Southern US before 1950 supreme court rulings and civil rights movement in the 1960s and 1970s which resulted in segregation of Blacks and place of privilege of Whites Are Low Prejudice People Really Low-Prejudice? - Problems and Limitations with Katz and Braly adjective checklist procedure o Niemann, Jennings, Rozelle, Baxter and Sullivan 1994  Problem with Generalizability – Sample consisted of white, upper-class, males  Problem with Study Design – sample was forced to fit traits into a particular schema – results are more an indication of words presented on a list than of schematic content of the respondents’ stereotypes o Devine and Elliot 1995  Does not measure knowledge about stereotypes but rather personal beliefs or willingness to publicly state those beliefs) about the truth of the stereotype  Ambiguity for participants whether they were supposed to report individual stereotypes (their own personal thoughts on African Americans) or cultural stereotypes (perceptions of African Americans prevalent in society) - Ehrilich and Rinehart 1965 o Used Katz & Braly checklist with half the participants and asked other half to just list all of the words, traits and characteristics they needed to adequately describe the group in question o Results: Words in the two conditions were different - Potkay & Allen 1971 o Expanded open-ended procedure to include values assigned to word to indicate favourability and favourability o Differences in results after using adjective generation is a good way to ascertain the content of the stereotypes at a given point in time - Devine and Elliot 1995 o Personal beliefs in negative stereotypes of African Americans appear to have to decreased, knowledge of the cultural stereotype of African Americans has remained the same Chapter 5: Old-Fashioned vs. Modern Prejudice PSYC12 o Difference in the overt expression of such beliefs, belief still remained in much more subdued form - Contemporary theories on racism need to understand the tension between underlying perhaps even subconscious negative association of African Americans with undesirable traits and the overtly embraced beliefs of egalitarianism and equality MODERN RACISM - McConahay 1986 – Theory of Modern Racism o Whites are ambivalent toward African Americans conflicted between their anti-Black feelings and their beliefs that racism and discrimination are wrong o Issue is not about equality but how equality SHOULD BE implemented in law, policy and employment o Have troubles with giving “special treatment” to African Americans because they believe it violates the work ethic that believes in meritocracy o Modern Racists believe  Discrimination is a thing of the past  African Americans are too pushy moving into places they are not welcome  Demands of African Americans are unfair  African American gains are undeserved and unfair (social programs, affirmative action, etc.) o Modern Racists don’t think they are racist because  Think racism is like old-fashioned racism with overt expressions of racist thinking  Disguise their beliefs by saying they don’t like anyone that violates what they believe to traditional American Values o Developed the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) – claims to have high reliability and validity to measuring subtle racism - Limitations to Theory of Modern Racism o Not conceptually different from old-fashioned racism o More described in chapter 3 SYMBOLIC RACISM - Kinder and Sears 1988 – Theory of Symbolic Racism o This is defined as a blend of anti-Black affect and traditional American moral values embodied in the Protestant work ethic o Whites who are classified as symbolic racists tend to resist changing the racial status quo (White Dominance) in all areas of life – economically, socially, and politically o Comes not out of self-interest but out of the general belief that Blacks violate traditional American values (self-reliance, individualism, hard work, obedience) o Symbolic racists can also deny their racist thinking by stating their derision is out of those not following traditional American values and can be overt in sentiments because of this differentiation Chapter 5: Old-Fashioned vs. Modern Prejudice PSYC12 o Symbolic racists will never be fully satisfied that other groups are adhering to American values o Critiques/Limitations:  Ill-defined concept  Other theories such as realistic group conflict theory and social dominance theory can easily explain Whites’ opposition to social programs that reduce the inequity between Blacks and Whites  Not distinguishable from more traditional forms of racism o Redeeming qualities  Importance of linking values to racial attitudes  Sears and Henry: Black individualism which a concern that Blacks do not live up to the conservative values such as those embodied in Protestant work ethic and specifically the value of individualism **Note: I’m having trouble differentiating between modern vs. symbolic racism! Explain this to me!  AVERSIVE RACISM - Gaertner and Dovidio 1986 – Theory of Aversive Racism o White Americans who possess these racist beliefs and feelings alongside strong egalitarian values o Aversive racism reflects ambivalence in Whites between learned negative attitudes learned in childhood vs. their commitment to egalitarian values and beliefs o Manifests itself as pro-White behavior such as in group favoritism rather than old- fashioned prejudicial expressions of out group derogation o Deny conscious awareness o Aversive racists experience more subtle feelings of discomfort, uneasiness, disgust and sometimes fear in the presence of African Americans o Examples: Will hire superior African American candidate but not hire a medium African American candidate o Caucasians showed not discrimination in helping Whites vs. Black but when they could rationalize their decision to not help with reasons not related to race (time, risk or effort); Caucasians gave less help to Blacks than Whites. (Saucier, Miller, Doucet, in press) SUMMARY OF CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF PREJUDICE - Symbolic and modern racism found in political conservatives, aversive racism found in political liberals - Commonalities between all three theories o Negative racial attitudes form in childhood - stable bedrock of negative Black affect o Then egalitarian beliefs are learned from peers, school and society o It can be subconscious and manifests itself in subtle forms such as opposition to social programs aimed at bringing more Blacks out of the disenfranchised areas of society o Ambivalence due to opposing tensions due to negative black affect vs. egalitarian values o Determining factor is context whether anti-black attitude will be displayed - Critiques of modern and symbolic racism is that is perhaps just old-fashioned racism Chapter 5: Old-Fashioned vs. Modern Prejudice PSYC12 MEASURES OF STEREOTYPING AND PREJUDICE - Must determine nature of prejudice as well as personality and situational influences The Self-Report Questionnaire - Opinion Polls and Interviews o Labor intensive, - Self – Report Questionnaires o Benefits:  Efficient – obtain large sample size in small amou
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