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Chapter 1

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study of Stereotyping and Prejudice PSYC12 DEFINING STEREOTYPING - Humans have a tendency to form groups and they are not unique to humans - Membership in a group can be restricted on the basis of special skills, family relations, gener, power and a host of other factors - Humans have found lives easier due to membership in groups via specialization and leads to longer, happier and more fulfilling lives - Groups are the basic building blocks of society - Group membership has an adaptive evolutionary and practical utility - Complications from group membership: mate competition, mate rentention, in group bias or favoritism and out group derogation, hostility, violence, prejudice - In groups vs. Out groups - Minimal groups: division of groups on arbitrary criteria (like shirt color or hair color) - Important to study prejudice and stereotyping because they lead to negative behavior such as wars and group violence (Holocaust, Rwanda, Armenia, Yugoslavia Genocide, Slave Trade) - Most intense inter group hostility has been based on a difference in a religious beliefs. - Overt expressions of racial prejudice and intergroup hatred has declined dramaticall, racial prejudice and stereotypes still exist Lippmann’s Stereotype - The word stereotype originally derives to describe a printing process in which fixed casts of material are reproduced - Lippmann 1922: stereotype term is used to describe the tendency of people to think of someone or something in similar terms – that is, as having similar attributes – besides the common feature o Example: Thinking all men are alike or all women are alike based on shared gender - ÈWe pick out what culture has already defined for us and we tend to perceive that which we have picked out in the form stereotyped for us by our culture - Stereotypes tell us what social information is important to perceive and to disregard in our environment. (pay attention to stereotype confirming information, ignore stereotype inconsistent information) Stereotyping: From Bad to Neutral - Originally, stereotyping was seen as an outward indicator of irrational, nonanlytic gontion and moral defectiveness. - Moved toward, The Nature of Prejudice by Allport 1954 – defined stereotype as an exaggerated belief associated with a category. Moved away from goodness or badness of stereotyping The Social-Cognitive Definition - 1970s: Stereotyping seen as a rather automatic process of categorization and an inherent part of human nature - Brigham 1971: stereotyping as a generalization made about a group concerning a trait attribution which is considered to be unjustified by an observer. (Problem with the need to include justifiable in definition – not necessary and redudnantÉ) Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study of Stereotyping and Prejudice PSYC12 - Hamilton & Trolier 1986: stereotype as a cognitive structure that contains the perceivers knowledge, beliefs, and expectations about a human group. (Problem – way too broad and the inclusion of knowledge and expectation is indicative of a larger categorization of schema and stereotype should be subsumed under this schema) - Ashmore and Del Boca 1981: stereotypes as a set of beliefs about the personal attributes of a group of people. Most current definition of stereotype Cultural and Individual Stereotypes - Cultural stereotypes: shared or community-wide patterns of belief - Individual stereotypes: beliefs held by an individual about the characteristics of a group - Katz and Braly adjective rating scales tend to measure cultural stereotypes and its important to note that ones individual vs. cultural stereotypes may not match - Lippmann 1922 believed that cultural stereotypes have greater predictive quality - Contemporary researchers believe individual stereotypes are more directly related to that persons specific thoughts, feelings, and behavior towards the group. Is a Stereotyping an Attitude? - Some believe stereotype is like attitude - Attitude: general evaluation of some object – falling in between positive or negative valence - Traditionally, attitude is thought to comprise of three components – affective, cognitive and behavioral - Prejudice = affective, Stereotype = cognitive, Discrimination = behavioral - Stereotype is NOT an attitude – an intergroup attitude is composed of ones thoughts or beliefs about, feelings toward and behavior toward a particular group Positive vs. Negative Stereotypes - Stereotype does not indicate anything about the affective valence of a the stereotype - Rather they are just merely generalization about a group but most tend to be negative but there are positive ones too such as Asians are good at math DEFINING PREJUDICE - Gardner 1994: o Prejudice can be taken literally to indicate a prejudement about something o Further level of specificity – prejudice can suggest an evaluation either positive or negative toward a stimulus o Negative evaluation of another stimulus o Evaluation = attitude Prejudice as Negative Affect - Allport 1954 The Nature of Prejudice: an antipathy or extreme dislike based upon a faulty and inflexible generalization – it may be felt or expressed. Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study of Stereotyping and Prejudice PSYC12 - It may be directed toward a group as a whole or toward an individual due to their membership in the group. - Prejudice seen as a negative feeling about someone based on a generalization one has about that personès group. - Contemporary theorists no longer subscribe to this notion of prejudice as emotion or affect Prejudice as Attitude - Prejudice as an attitude because it was an evaluation of a stimulus - Prejudice can be based on affective, cognitive or behavioural sources and can result in cognitive, behavioral, or affective expressions of prejudice. - Stangor Sullivan and Ford 1991 – best predictor of negative behavior is lack of positive emotions rather than negative emotions - Eagly and Diekman argue that prejudice is most likely to occur when a disadvanataged group tries to move itno roles that believed by majority to be unqualified for Prejudice as Social Emotion - Appraisal - Subtyping - Prejudice o Occurs between groups o Involves an evaluation o Biased perception of a group o Based on real or imagined characteristics o THE LINK BETWEEN STEREOTYPING AND PREJUDICE - Heider 1958: Balance Theory – ones attitudes, behavior and affect toward another person should be cognitively consistent or one experiences imbalance which leads to cognitive arousal also known as cognitive dissonance (Festinger 1957) - Foolish or hypocritical if one does not match behavior with attitudes o Either can attitude or change behavior - Fishbein and Ajzen 1975: Theory of Reasoned Action – relationship between an attitude and subsequent attitude-relevant behavior is much stronger if one aggreages multiple bheaviors into a single behavior - Dovidio 1996 – stereotyping and prejudice related via meta-analysis EARLY PERSPECTIVES IN STEREOTYPING RESEARCH Measurement - Katz & Braly 1933 study used adjective ch
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