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PSYC12H3 (298)
Chapter 4


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Michael Inzlicht

PSYC12 WINTER 2013 CHAPTER 4: THE PREJUDICED PERSONALITY: ARE SOME PEOLE MORE LIKELY TO FEEL PREJUDICED?  Major influence on the study on whether prejudiced personality exists is due to the terrible Nazi-led holocaust in Germany PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVES Authoritarianism  Adorno et Al o Authoritarian personality o Authoritarians grew up with strict parent disciplinarians who used HARSH discipline o Submissive to authority, adhere to middle-class traditions and values, rigid thinkers o Hold prejudices against many groups, not one group, o Freudian aspect – hated deviant impulses and projected them onto outside groups o In sum, authoritarians FEAR and DEPENDENC on parents & HATRED of them causes them to channel unacceptable parent-related impulses into hostility to minority groups  Allport o Personality is a strong contributor in developing prejudiced attitudes o Prejudice emerges out of a crippled ego o Projecting fear and doubts onto others, prejudiced personality people repress their fears and insecurities to avoid facing their anxieties and shortcomings o Ambivalence, moralism, need for definiteness, and black or white thinking Problems with Psychodynamic Approach  4 main reasons for the decline of interest in this theory o Increased criticisms of psychodynamic approach in general  Inverse relationship between world mindedness and authoritarianism o Prejudice may to do an INTOLERANT personality, so probably not a prejudiced personality at all  Intolerant = authoritative  Both of these above approaches get the same result as the psychodynamic one without using the framework, no need for psychodynamics then  Methodological and other conceptual problems with the notion of the authoritarian personality caused many researchers to conclude that the approach was unsatisfactory under scientific standards PSYC12 WINTER 2013  The theory only explained prejudice in a small subset of people, did not explain why many people who did not have an authoritarian personality did show prejudice toward at least one other group  Authoritarian personality perspective suggests that there is little hope of changing an authoritarian individual to be more accepting of others RIGHT WING AUTHORITARISM  Altemeyer o Argues for attitudinal clusters: authoritarian submission, authoritarian aggression, and conventionalism o Authoritarian submission – submissive to legitimate authorities o Authoritarian aggression – general aggression and hostility directed toward out-groups o Conventionalism – strong adherence to social norms and tradition as sanctioned by recognized authorities  Altemeyer termed this constellation of attitudes RIGHT WING AUTHORITARIANISM (RWA)  High RWA = politically conservative, wish to restrict personal freedom, more punitive toward criminals, and tend to hold more orthodox religious views, prejudiced to out-groups, EQUAL OPPORTUNITY BIGOTS o Fearful and SELF RIGHTEOUNESS  Tend to be prejudiced towards an out-group they don’t have anything in common with  During childhood, most people are high in RWA that gets tempered with age but RWA people are more likely to never get the ability for introspection and insight because their circle of friends are very close minded as well RELIGION  Research shows that there is a positive correlation between being more religious and having less tolerance and more stereotyped cognition about others  Greater adherence to religious texts = more RIGID THINKING  Thinking associated with great religiosity hinders ability to not use stereotypes, and there is strong link between prejudice and intolerance then Committed vs. Consensual Preciosity  Allen and Spilka  2 types of religiosity: committed and consensual o Committed religious orientation: one that allows an individual to hold a wide range of belief categories through which one can evaluate the world and one’s ideas about the world and others tend to be more complex and open minded  Greater tolerance for diversity, more likely to thoughtfully consider different ideas, beliefs and opinions PSYC12 WINTER 2013 o Consensual religious individuals tend to interpret religion more literally and concretely, tend to make more generalizations about religious topics, and generally unreceptive to different ideas and opinions  More likely to be prejudiced than committed religious individuals Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic Religious Orientation  Extrinsic people use religion for their own purposes, more prejudiced against others,  Intrinsic people are those who have internalized the value of their religion, living their life according to these beliefs, more egalitarian, less prejudiced  Critique of this ROS scale (religious orientation scale) o Self report measure so not accurate because of social desirability o Being intrinsically oriented does not necessarily mean that one is non- prejudiced but it does mean that one is much more concerned with presenting oneself as more religious and egalitarian than one is  Homosexuals are a less approved group by religious people, more likely to be homophobic than racist Religion as a Quest  Religion is seen as a process of questioning, doubting and reexamination in response to the contradictions and traditions of life  Quest orientation = increased prosocial behavior  Study by Batson et Al o Pre-testing self report of religious orientation o Second task, months later come in for a movie screening and participant gets to choose whether they want to sit in the room with a white confederate or black confederate  Half told the same movie playing in both theatres (overt, unambiguous condition)  Half told there were different movies in each theatres (covert, ambiguous condition) o Intrinsic individuals were more likely to sit with the black student in the overt condition and with the white student in covert situation  Intrinsic orientation people tend to score lower on self report measures of prejudiced but they do not tend to score lower on these measures compared to non religious people  Religion doesn’t curtail prejudice except in those with quest religious orientation NEED FOR COGNITION  Those high in need for cognition tend to think about, seek and ponder information relevant to the relationships about people, events and objects in their environment PSYC12
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