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Chapter 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYC12 Chapter 2 -cognitive psychologists found out that the human brain seems to almost automatically categorize similar objects in the enviro. Been shown to begin as early as 6 months. >stereotyping was no longer regarded as the product of lazy thinking by the uneducated. It was now regarded as a natural consequence of cognition -when we encounter a person, we tend to automatically assess that person on the basis of our perception of that person’s features. >humans have a limited-capacity cognitive system, cant process all available info in our social enviro -categorize people, objects, ideas, etc. based on shared features. >classify individ along some broad categories like gender, race and age. Immediate/obvious features of them, and these categories yield lots of info about useful distinctions in social behave among those diff groups >process occurs very quickly, virtually automatic. >the way the person categorizes a picture of an individ depends on the perceiver’s motives, cognitions and affect. -a basic way in which we partition people is into ingroups (groups we belong to) and outgroups (groups we don’t belong to) >individ part of an outgroup are perceived as sharing similar characteristics, motives and other features. When it comes to our ingroup, we like to think that our group comprises unique people who happen to share one or two common features >outgroup members are “all alike”. The outgroup members that most closely resemble what one believes is the typical member of an outgroup, will be more likely to be perceived stereotypically that those who have fewer of the stereotyped characteristics of the typical outgroup member (outgroup homogeneity) -we’re enhancing our self concept by thinking that we do not belong in an homogenous type of group where all the members are similar in may ways -by favoring our ingroups, we also tend to put down outgroups. >this idea is not totally supported. But the more an outgroup is seen as similar, the greater the likelihood for perceivers to use group or stereotype labels to access info about outgroup -exposure to members of outgroup can lead to either a more stereotyped view or more positive view of the outgroup, depending on context. -the dimension on which people are viewed as ingroup or outgroup members doesn’t have to be a meaningful one (racial or political) in order for the bias to occur. >even minimal groups can show ingroup bias. Minimal groups have none of the usual features of a group structure. Occurs even when people are arbitrarily assigned to a group -group status moderates the tendency to engage in ingroup favoritism. Low status groups tend to show outgroup favoritism and high status groups showed ingroup favoritism. -children of parents who were authoritarian, were moly to develop prejudiced attitudes. -parents and their adult children are similar in intergroup attitudes. >factor that determined the influence the degree of the parent/child intergroup attitude similarity was whether or not the parents showed Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWH) >attitudes of adult children of low RWH were similar to those of their parents. >relationship of kids of high RWH parents depended on whether or not they saw their parents as responsive. Those who saw them as responsive were more similar to their parents. -stereotypes have strong influence on child’s perception of their ingroups and outgroups. Research found that majority group kids had more + attitudes toward their own groups and – attitudes toward outgroups >minority group members also had more + views of the majority group than of even their own ingroup. 2 >asked to explain successful performances of majority group members, both groups made positive internal attributions. But they attributed successful performance of minority group members to luck -children from stigmatized groups are aware of stereotypes about their group and show effects of stereotype threat on stereotype relevant tasks. >their anxiety about confirming the poor stereotype performance on task impedes their performance -along with parents, different types of media present overt and covert messages about intergroup relations. -e.x of intergroup beliefs people form from media: portrayal of crime in America. Common belief that African americans are more likely to engage in criminal activity. -media is less than objective in reporting incidence of crimes committed by blacks. People of color are more likely to be presented as perpetrators of crime. -implicit theories: beliefs and heuristics that guide your processing of social info and help evaluate others. >our own ideas of what personality characteristics “go together” -once we’ve categorized someone as having certain characteristics, we’re more likely to assume that that person has a host of related characteristics. -some people, entity theorists, think their personality traits are fixed and cant change. Believe behaviour is consistent, so they should be more likely to infer related target-personality characteristics because of an isolated behaviour on the target. Tend to use stereotypes more often in judgement of outgroups, form more extreme judgements and attribute stereotyped charac. to inborn qualities within the outgroup individ -Other people, incremental theorists, say their personality traits are flexible. Believe behaviour is less predictable -we tend to reserve our cognitive efforts for instances in which we are mot
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