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PSYC12H3 (298)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 stereotype threat.docx

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Michael Inzlicht

Chapter One: Introduction  Blacks and Latinos trail whites in education at all age levels o Gap has narrowed but race gap has not changed o Gaps exist worldwide: black-white achievement gaps in Canada, socioeconomic gaps in France, Christian-Muslim gaps in the Netherlands, Ashkenazi-Sephardic gaps in Israel  Gender gap in math and science achievement o Only narrow gender gap in math achievement in hs but gap is large on uni entrance tests o Gender gap has not diminished since 1994 despite women being better hs students overall, over-representing men in the top 10% o Women = minority in science, technology, engineering, & math o Approaching equality in med, business, law but even in fields more evenly represented, still a dearth of women in top leadership positions What causes the Achievement Gap?  Standard explanations: nature or nurture; biological & genetic explanations; culture/ socialization  Book Bell Curve claim race gap in academic achievement = biological differences (black/ latinos have inferior intelligence)  Nurture side: women = products of sociocultural environments o Ex: being raised in a low-oncome fam = less access t educational resources  lower academic performance  Cultural and socialization pressures o Ex: Mothers encourage sons in math and science despite evidence showing daughters are just as skilled  presumption majority of our pop due to gender, racial, or ethnic background, lacks the potential to achieve academic success as their white and asian male counterparts  marginalized groups have less ability  assumption standardized tests valid and unbiased  race differences persist even after controlling for socioeconomic status  even if we could match students on genetic predispositions, educational background, something in the situation itself holds marginalized groups back from reaching their full potential o something = existence of social stereotypes o mere existence of stereotypes creates a threatening intellectual environment  stereotype threat: interfere with intellectual functioning and academic engagement Stereotype Threat:  Stereotype threat: situational predicament
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