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Lecture 21.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC12H3
Professor
Gerald Cupchik

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Question 1 - 620 Using Juvenile Roosters, Berthold wanted to determine the role of testis in male sexual development. Which of the following statement(s) below is the correct finding of Berthold’s experiment? Castrated Roosters displayed normal social behaviour and did not develop secondary sex characteristics Testis produces some signalling molecules which dictate male sexual development and the signal may be carried to closer sites via the blood. Castrated Roosters displayed abnormal social behaviour and did not develop primary sex characteristics Transplanted testis did not re-establish a connection to the circulatory system Testis produces some signalling molecules which dictate male sexual development and the signal may be carried to distant sites via the blood. Question 2 - 621 Which of the following statements regarding the RB gene is false? When RB protein interacts with E2F, the synthesis of S-phase proteins is repressed In normal cells, S-phase is initiated when CDK phosphorylates RB RB is a Tumour Suppressor Gene In a cell infected with HPV, the promoter of the S-phase genes is constitutively turned off Mutations must be present in both copies of the RB gene to result in a loss of growth control Question 3 - 627 Which of the following statements about the Berthold experiment is TRUE? Bulls were the test subjects used due to a lack of male volunteers The experiment tested the role of the testis in male sexual development Autopsies done on the test subjects found that their transplanted subjects established a connection to the brain After castration the test subjects exhibited no change in behaviour All of the above Question 4 - 610 Repeated exposure to the chemical carcinogens of tobacco have led an individuals DNA to become damaged. Indicate which of the following activities are crucial to prevent the cell from entering S phase with damaged DNA. Inhibition of p53 by the protein MDM2 Rise in the level of p53 activity Activating the expression of the p21 gene Both A and B Both B and C Question 5 - 624 When the DNA of a cell becomes damaged due to exposure to mutagens, what can occur when p53 is involved in cell division? the level of p53 drops p53 arrests the progression of the cell through G2 p53 directs the cell toward programmed cell death both A and B are correct both B and C are correct Question 1 - 617 RB is a tumor suppressant gene that encodes for a protein that negatively regulates cell cycle. Suppose there is a spontaneous mutation on one of the two alleles of the RB gene. Which of the following statement is true? E2F acts continuously to sponsor uncontrolled cell cycle progression Normal cell growth occurs CDK phosphorylates RB as a signal to initiate S-phase Both A and C are correct Both B and C are correct A. False because this requires a mutation on both alleles (Lecture 20+ slide 19) B. This is correct because one mutation on one allele does not result in a loss of control. However there is also another option that is correct. (Lecture 20+ slide 19) C. This is correct because this is what occurs in normal cell growth as it remains unaffected by only one mutated allele in the RB gene. However there is also another option that is correct. (Lecture 20+ slide 24) Question 2 - 626 What are the three communication strategies that respond to the extracellular signalling molecules? Autocrine (local), paracrine (systemic), endocrine (self) Autocrine (systemic), paracrine (local), endocrine (self) Autocrine (self), paracrine (local), endocrine (systemic) Autocrine (self), paracrine (systemic), endocrine (local) Autocrine (hormonal), paracrine (systemic), endocrine (local) c) CORRECT: the autocrine strategy is referred to as the ‘self’, paracrine as the ‘local’ and endocrine as the ‘systemic’ strategy Question 3 - 636 Which of the following statements in True? Extracellular messengers can only travel a short distance and can only stimulate nearby cells Paracrine messenger molecules are stable, and therefore able to able to travel around the body There are 3 types of extracellular signaling Like all other extracellular signaling messengers, endocrine messengers act on close sites in the body Autocrine signaling involves cells with receptors on their surface, that can respond to that messenger B - FALSE (Paracrine messenger molecules are usually limited in their ability to travel around the body because they are inherently unstable) - page 606 Question 4 -
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