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Canada (158,274)
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PSYC12H3 (294)
Chapter 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 3: Feeling vs. Thinking in theActivation andApplication of Stereotypes Mood • major benefit of the cognitive approach to stereotyping has been the demonstration of the important influence of expectations about social groups on social judgements and attitudes and behaviour toward out-groups ◦ research demonstrating that intergroup discrimination can originate from categorization • emotions were thought to contribute importantly to the development and endurance of stereotypes • affect plays a major role in the way that information about social groups and group members is processed ◦ influences the accessibility of constructs in memory and thus may determine which of many social representations are primed, and which characteristics in a given representation become activated ◦ also influence the extent to which the individual exerts information processing effort ◦ became associated with social-group labels through learning processes ◦ when affect and physiological arousal are associated with group members, they will influence how information about the outgroup member is interpreted, how the perceiver responds to the outgroup member, and whether the perceiver tends to interact with members of the target group in the future Types of Intergroup Affect • incidental affect is affect that is elicited by situations unrelated to the intergroup context • integral affect is affect that is elicited by situations unrelated to the intergroup context and involves the stereotyped outgroup ◦ can also arise merely from thinking about the outgroup • chronic outgroup affect is when individuals have a rather stable feeling toward the outgroup as a whole ◦ attitudes have traditionally been viewed as stable, enduring evaluations of an attitude object ◦ an object attitude is anything about which one forms an attitude (e.g., idea, person, object) ◦ the affect associated with the attitude is also an enduring feature of the evaluation of the attitude object ▪ each time the attitude object is perceived or remembered, the evaluation will trigger beliefs and other information associated with the object, as well as enduring feelings associated with the attitude object • also true when considering enduring attitudes • affect that one feels toward the group, as result of one's enduring attitude toward the outgroup is chronic outgroup affect ◦ distinct from affective reactions to an interaction with a specific member of the outgroup ◦ although the overt form of hostility and prejudice towardAfricanAmericans may be much less prevalent, prejudice continues to exist in a more subtle form ◦ aversive racism describes the prejudice towardAfrican Americans that characterizes many WhiteAmericans' attitudes ▪ these people truly believe they are egalitarian and regard themselves as nonprejudiced • also possess negative feelings aboutAfricanAmericans ◦ if they can do so in a subtle, easily rationalizable fashion, these individuals may express negative attitudes towardAfrican Americans yet feel no affective consequences (i.e., guilt, shame, sadness) from doing so, thereby preserving the self from threatening conduct-related negative affect ◦ differences in physical appearance between Caucasians andAfricanAmericans can feel this negative affect ◦ people in the ingroup are ▪ assumed to be more similar in beliefs ▪ evaluated more favourably ▪ the recipients of more positive behaviour by the perceiver than are members of outgroups ▪ found to be more attractive by the perceiver ◦ social and cultural factors also contribute to the anti-cultural stereotypes of Blacks in the US as lazy, ignorant, poor, and more likely to commit crimes ◦ Caucasians tend to see Black culture in the US as promoting values that are at odds with the Protestant work ethic ◦ when a situation threatens to make these negative feelings salient, low-prejudice individuals try to dissociate themselves from these feelings and often act more positively in ways that will convince them and others that they are not prejudiced ◦ when people feel negative affect, they are especially likely to describe racial out groups using unfavourable characteristics ▪ the negative affective state that has been investigated the most is anxiety • commonly experienced by individuals in an intergroup interaction • disruptive effect on the behaviour, thoughts, and feelings of the outgroup member and the perceiver • lead to increased stereotyping by the perceiver, an avoidance of future intergroup interaction, and attempts by the perceiver to control others ▪ when there has been minimal contact, and/or the contact has been characterized by conflict, the individual will tend to feel more anxiety prior to or during the intergroup interaction ▪ anxiety may promote stereotyping of outgroup members by an affective consistency process (cuing more negative cognitions) or through increased reliance on expectancies (and schema) regarding outgroup members as a result of a reduction in cognitive capacity • stereotyping may also occur through a combination of each of these two processes ▪ many of the reported causes of emotion in the intergroup context were related to characteristics of members of the ethnic outgroup • episodic outgroup affect is when people have an affective reaction within an interaction with a specific outgroup member ◦ can result from the imagined interaction with an individual from the outgroup ◦ can often have a strong impact on an individual’s chronic, enduring outgroup affect, and it is believed the individual's enduring attitudes toward the outgroup ◦ may be possible to change negative chronic outgroup affect (and hence negative outgroup attitudes) toward the outgroup by the opposing impact of positive episodic outgroup affect Incidental Affect • feelings that have no origination associated with the outgroup • incidental affect can subsequently influence an individual's proclivity to use stereotypes in social judgement Influence of PositiveAffect • positive affect has been shown to reduce the extent of systematic processing ◦ rely on heuristic cues, initial judgements, decisional shortcuts, and other simplifying strategies ◦ more likely to use stereotypes in their judgement of others ◦ exception: when happy people a
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