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Chapter 6

ch.6 prejudice.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

CH.6 EXPERIENCING PREJUDICE SOCIAL STIGMA - Erving Goffman referred to the unusual characteristics that engender negative evaluations as being indicators of stigma. The stigmatized person is one who is reduced in our minds frm a whole and usual person to a tainted, discounted one - They’re characteristics tht mke tht mark the individual as deviant, flawed, limited, spoiled or undesirable - Goffman denoted 3 types of stigmas: abominations of the body (like being over-weight); blemishes of individual character (ex: drunkness); and tribal stigmas of race, nation, and religion (prejudice against another race) GROUP IDENTIFICATION - Prev rsrch indicates individuals faced with external threats show stronger ingrp identification. Rsrch found tht ppl differ in degree to which they identify with their stigmatized group. - High identifiers are much more likely to associate themselves with their grp, esp when it has a negative image. They derive much of their self-esteem frm their identification as a grp members. They seek collective strategies against group threat - Low identifiers are more likely to dissociate themselves frm the grp, esp when grp has a neg image. They feel no self affinity toward or derive no self-esteem from their grp STEREOTYPE THREAT - Stereotype threat is when ur aware of the stereotype, you try to disconfirm it but at the end you behave in a counter stereotypical fashion - Look at slides for more information - True even for gender- women as stereotype threat when with men - Cheryn and Bodenhauses examined the influence of salient pos stereotypes on one’s task performance. If the stereotype abt your grp is tht u do well on a task could it enhance or impair performance? Asian American were expose to an identity salience manipulation where they completed survey abt their ethnic grp, gender, or ind identity. Then completed test of math skills. Results: when participants’ ethnic identity was made salient, their math performance was worse than when personal id or gender id was made salient. Another study found opposite results, when Asian Am women had their ethnic id made salient they performed btr on math test than when no id or gender was made salient. - More rsrch is needed to identify the specific additive and individual effects tht stereoypes abt one’s various ingrps can have on one’s cogn nd behaviours - Disidentification: individuals disengage their identity from achievement domain in qs, such tht their self esteem and self competence is preserved and shielded from the negative effects of associating identity with performance on a stereotype relevant dimension - What trigger’s disidentification? Either devaluing the importance of the stereotype threat domain or discounting the validity and self-diagnostic of outcomes on the stereotype threat dimension, the stigmatized can psychologically disengage from the stereotype threat dimension and protect their self-esteem. - In math test, no gender difference women performed well but when there is gender difference they performed worse than men. It indicates that women under strong stereotype threat they disidentify with math careers than women under weak stereotype threat (Steel et al.) - we achieve social identity theory through own accomplishments and group membership SELF-ESTEEM - Individuals who blve tht their stigmatize condtn is cntrllable may be more likely to feel tht neg evaluation of them are justified and will be more likely to feel lower self-esteem. Belvng tht one’s stigma is uncontrollable will lead the stigmatize individual to resist the blame for the stigma, to attribute neg evaluation to prejudice and maintain self-esteem Denial of Discrimination - What determines whether a member of a stigmatized grp perceived the behaviour of a nonstigmatized person as discrimination or prejudice? Rsrch mkes a compelling case that the degree to which the stigmatized individual believes in an ideology tht legitimizes existing status differences btwn grps will infleunces their perceptions of personal communication - The more individual does not endore such an ideology and believes in in mobility of grp members, the less likely it is tht neg behaviour/evaluations frm the nonstigmatized individual will be interpreted as instances of discrimination or prejudice - Another factor tht can influence whether a stigmatized grp member attributes behaviour of a nonstigmatized individual to the prejudice and discrimination is the social costs involved with doing so. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy - It refers to the phenomenon by which a perceiver’s expectations abt a target eventually lead tht target to behave in ways that conf
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