-blacks and latinos continue to trail whites in standardized measures of reading and mathematics at all
-achievement gap has narrowed overtime but not the race gap.
-similar gaps exist WORLDWIDE
-gender gap is small in high school, large in entrance tests to university like SATs
-women still a minority when it comes to top positions
What Causes the Achievement Gap?
-standard explanations: nature/nuture, biological/genetic, culture/socialization
-Nature: the bell curve (blacks and latinos have inferior genes), women's inferior instrinsic aptitude
-Nurture:women products of sociocultural environments, less education resourcs (low income family)=
lower academic performance.
-it is believed that scores on a standardized test of intelligence and achievement are valid and unbiased
indicator of a person's true abilty.
-race difference still exists even after controlling socioeconomic status
-even culturally fair and valid measures can still be subject to variables that systematically impair
performance for some individuals and not others.
-something in the situation itself, holds maginalized groups back from reaching their full
potential. This something is the existence of SOCIAL STEREOTYPES.- creates a threatening intellectual
environment for stigmatized individuals
-a climate in which anything they say or do could be interpreted through the lens of low
expectations- STEREOTYPE THREAT.
-defined as a situational predicament in which individuals are at risk, by dint of their actions or
behaviours, of confirming negative stereotypes about their group.
-this fear of confirmtion can hijack the congnitive systems required for optimal performance and
result in low test performance.
- occurs also in latinos, women in math and science, elderly in meemory and whites in athletics. -the theory of ST acoids the nature vs nurture trap by suggesting that situations themselves can bring
apparent group differences in performance. It avoids labeling people. Points to power of the SITUATION.
Even subtle changes to the situation can have profound effects on performance.
-Stereotype threat can also cause learning impairments.
-can ead to negative health complications as a result of frequent activation of a stress response.
-impairments tos to basic executive-level cognitive processes can then have implications for decision
making and the control of negative or maladaptive impulses.
Chapter 2: THE ROLE OF SITUATIONAL CUES IN SIGNALING AND MAINTAINING STEREOTYPE THREAT
-the meaning people assign to those cues ultimately affects whehther they will become vulnerable to-or
protected against-stereotype threat.
-"identity safe" cues in a setting can eliminate stereotype threat by reducing identity threat concerns
and signaling to stigmatized individuals that their social identity will not be a liability to their outcomes.
Stereotype Threat: A Person in Context
-situational cues in a setting make a stereotype salient and relevant to one's actions, the resulting
psychological pressure to disprove the stereotype might depress academic performance.
The Role of Cues and Vigilance n Stereotype Threat
-assumption that a personal has multiple social identities. When situational cues signal an indentity's
value or importance in a setting, that particularg roup membership becomes more salient than the
others and vigilance process in initiated during which ppl's attn is directed to other situational cues in
the environment to determine whether the identity may be a liability.
-vigilance increased if the identity may be a liability.
-remember more situational cues
-individuals differ with regard to the likelihood and intensity that thy engage the vigilance process.
-research finds that the degree to which one identifies w/ a domain moderates stereotype threat
-ppl who are more identified with their stereotyped social group are also more vulnerable to stereotype
Situational Cues in Academic Settings
-when a test is notoriously important- such as when it predicts future academic opportunities or
scholarships- no additional cue is necessary to induce stereotype threat. -organization of a setting significantly moderates stereotype threat effects.
-ie with each man added to a testroom where a woman was taking a math test, performance
declined linearly whereas men were unaffected by the cue.
-women exposed to stereotypic commercials indicated less interest in persuing quantitative domains as
a career, preferring to apply for verbal domains in which a potential for gender stereotyping is reduced.
-subtle situational cues found in both the media and in the behaviors of others can launch the
stereotype process and interfere with the performance, aspirations, and cognitive processes of
Situational Cues and Social Identity Concerns
-situational cues become meaningful to people to the extent that they imply some contingency between
the cue and one's outcome in a setting.
-stigmatized individuals experience more uncertainty in novel situations that unstigmatized ppl do
-stigmatized ppl also search for cues to belonging.( Belonging concerns).
-stigamatized individuals are also vigilant to cues that indicate the likelihood that they can be authentic
in a setting. May make person feel fake. (Authenticity concerns)
-sitmatized individuals often look for cues to interpersonal trust. (Trust and fairness concerns)
-discrimination and devaluation concerns
-marginalization, ghettoizations, social exclusion concerns: concerns that one's beliefs are abnormal to
-situational cues vary in the number and type of social identity concerns that they trigger.
Creating and Sustaining Identity-safe Settings
-identity safe settings contain identity-affirming cues-which signal to people that their social identity is
Cues to Identity Safety in Academic Settings
-threat in a academic setting is reduced by explicitly stating that the upcoming test is nondiagnostic of
intelligence. Or explicitly saying that is test is unbiased/culturally fair.
-its seems that ppl linkg evaluative tests to negative group stereotypes automatically and it takes an
explicit rebuttal of the the stereotype's revelance to elimiante stereotype threat.
Adding Identity-safe Cues to a Setting -used to neaturalize the otherwise threatening environment.
-Critical Mass- the number of identity MATES that is takes for an individual to feel they will not be
judged according to their social identity. Is an identity-safe cue.ie adding more females to a math test
setting reduced stereotype threat among the women.
-rooted to a belonging concern.
CH 3: AN INTEGRATION OF PROCESSES THAT UNDERLIE STEREOTYPE THREAT
-stereotype threat effects were not due to threat at all, rather it was argued that situations can prime
negative stereotypes that indviduals then automatically assimilate into their behavior.
Stereotype Threat is What Stereotype Threat Does
-one who experiences stereotype threat have a motivation to avoid enacting any behavior that might be
seen as stereotypical.
Automatic Activation of Threat
-awareness of the stereotype threat consciously is not needed.
-can cause overinterpretation of cues bc the underlying goal is to avoid confirmation of the stereotype.
-situations of stereotype threat brings to mind thoughts about one's relation o a valued domain that
conflict with one's relation to a valued group that is stereotyped to do poorly.
Explicit Effots to Manage the Situation and One's Responses
-the automatic processes that negative self-relevant stereotypes set in motion are accompanied by a
number of controlled processes that can, in turn, affect performance. Often for the worse but,
sometimes, even for the better.
Increased Effort at the Task
-stereotype threat increase's ones motivation to disconfirm the stereotype.
-increased drive to perform well
-performance increased if involves simple cognitive function or a well-learned through
-performance impaired if the task is more cognitively challenging.
-increased arousal -threat increases a prepotent response, however faster to launch corrective saccad (enhanced
motivation to do well)
-the effort is not purely a function of controlled processing.
Decreased Working Memory
-stereotype threat taxes working memory capacity
The Depleting Effects of Task Ruminations
-working memory can be impaired by negative stereotypes bc central executive and phonological loop
resources are saturated with internal worries about one's performance.
-increased worries and negative thoughts about the situation
-anxious arousal actually predicted better working memory under stereotype threat when individuals
were primed with confidence or has a dispositional tendency to reappraise negative emotions in a more
-ST can hijack central executive funtioning via attempts to suppress negative thoughts.
Efforts to Regulate Thoughts and Emotions
-suppression processes are cognitively depleting as they rely on the same central executive processes
needed for other types of problem solving.
-ppl are ego depleted after experiencing ST
-situational reminders of one's stigmatized status led to miniority students expected to take an
intelligence test to perform more poorly on a Strrop interference task in one study and led women
expectving to have their math ability assesed to have greater difficulty squeezing a hand grip.
-if you used distracticing thought to avoid thinking about stereotype,