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PSYC12H3 (294)


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Michael Inzlicht

32625638PSYC12BodenhausenMacrae 1996Role of cognitive miserengaging only in the amount of thought necessary to produce an apparently adequate understanding of othersStereotypesautomatic occur without awarenessCognitive processes are said to be automatic when they occur without the perceivers conscious intent or awareness of them without the perceivers ability to control them or with an efficiency that requires little investment of the perceivers limited cognitive resourcesPersonal prejudices eg racial prejudice may make certain bases for social categorization chronically salient so when members of these targeted categories are encountered they tend to be categorized routinely in terms of this particular group membership rather than other equally applicable categoriesonce stereotypic expectations are formed they tend to bias subsequent information processing in a confirmatory mannerwhen people are committed to egalitarian nonprejudiced standards and their thoughts feelings or behavior seem to violate these standards they tend to become selffocused and direct effort at reducing this discrepancylowprejudice persons feel bad when their reactions to outgroup members contravene their own nonprejudiced standards so they are motivated to avoid reacting in stereotypic or prejudiced waysIn order to self regulate in making stereotypes a possible strategy is simply to make direct adjustments to ones judgments and conclusions in the direction opposite to the presumed biasWegner etalmodel of stereotype suppressionstarts with the realization that for any control process to be effective it must be able both to test the status of the environment and to operate on the environment when the test process yields less than satisfactory resultsMonitoring processautomatic operating processeffortful therefore For example Wegner 1994 reviews evidence from studies of 1 attempts to concentrate 2 attempts to control ones mood 3 attempts to relax 4 attempts to control pain 5 attempts to fall asleep and many othersTime pressure distraction and preoccupation affective states and even alcohol are factors that may impair thought control by reducing the availability of attentional resources needed to inhibit unwanted thoughtsAs long as the operating process is in place and functioning mental control can often be successfully accomplished but if the effortful operating process is impeded suspended or abandoned the unchecked monitoring process can produce hyperaccessibility of unwanted mental contents setting the stage for counterintentional reactionsSocial perceivers can successfully inhibit stereotypic responses while they are actively striving to do so but once they stop making this effort the stereotypes return to affect their thoughts and actions to an even greater degreeWhile the operating process is working it can keep the unwanted thoughts successfully out of awareness but if it is interrupted by a cognitive load or if it simply recedes or becomes inactive because of diminishing motivation to engage in suppression then rebound effects can begin to emerge telling people that they must justify their judgments of an outgroup member may instill a concern about being labeled prejudiced that results in conscious attempts to avoid stereotypes rather than conscious attempts to be as systematic and thorough as possibleMeasuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition THE IAT TESTndIAT measures 2 target concepts that appear in a 2 choice task and the attribute in a 2 taskknow what the proceduredesign of the IAT isImplicit attitudes are manifest as actions or judgments that are under the control of automatically activated evaluation without the performers awareness of that causationSeeks to measure implicit attitudes by measuring their underlying automatic evaluationIAT may reveal attitudes and other automatic associations even for people who prefer not to express those attitudesIAT assesses the association between a targetconcept discrimination and an attribute dimensionThe procedure starts with the introduction of the targetconcept discrimination eg First names that is recognizable as being attributed to BlackWhiteRespond one category to be responded by left handother by right handThen introduce attribute dimensionform of a 2 category discrimination as well egpleasantunpleasant
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