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PSYC12H3 (294)
Chapter 1

PSYC12 Chapter 1 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

CH.1: Introduction to the study of Stereotyping and Prejudice -“Groups are the basic building blocks of society” -Tendency to form groups is basic part of the nature of animals -survival benefits Ingroups: groups in which we belong to. Outgroups: groups which we do not belong. Minimal group: random assigning people to groups. -People tend to show preferences for members of their own group over those of other groups. Prejudice: A biased evaluation of a group, based on real/imaginary traits of the group members. Stereotypes: A set of attributes & traits associated with a group of people. -A logical analysis of intergroup hostility suggests there is no rational bias for disliking others simply because they belong to another group. -However, humans are often far from logical in their thinking. -Prejudice and stereotyping; such negative attitudes form the basis for subsequent negative intergroup behavior. -Most intense intergroup hostility difference in religious beliefs -overt expressions of racial prejudice and intergroup hatred have declined dramatically only, racial prejudice and stereotypes have not disappeared STEREOTYPING Lippmann’s “Stereotype” -Stereotype derives from the term: a printing process in which fixed casts of material are reproduced -Lippmann used the word stereotype: “the tendency of people to think of someone or something in similar terms based on a common feature shared by each” -tell us what social info is important to perceive and to disregard in our environment -pay attention to stereotype-consistent info and disregard info that’s inconsistent with out stereotype Stereotyping: From bad to neutral: -used to be regarded as a negative, lazy way of perceiving social groups -seen as an outward indicator of irrational, nonanalytic cognition -Then, ALLPORT moved away from the bad: “A stereotype is an exaggerated belief associated with a category” The Social-Cognitive Definition: -In early 1970s, researchers came to regard stereotyping as an automatic process of categorization. -Inherent in the nature of the way humans think about the world -BRIGHAM: “A generalization made about a group concerning a trait attribution, which is considered to be unjustified by an observer”
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