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Chapter 10

PSYC12 Chapter 10

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

PSYC12 Notes – Chap 10: Trends and Unanswered Questions in Prejudice Research • Americans seem to have a particularly strong aversion to people who are overweight, and are more likely to display their prejudice towards overweight people than toward other groups. One reason is that an overweight person violates the American ideal of self- denial and self-restraint • The perceiver’s attributions of the controllability of the target’s stigmatized condition will have a strong impact on the evaluations, attitudes, and feelings the perceiver has about the target. Most people regard being overweight as entirely controllable and also as an outward indicator of personal, intellectual, motivational, etc. deficiencies. • Teachman et al. measured implicit and explicit antifat attitudes, finding that people can have strong implicit antifat attitudes but no explicit antifat attitudes. Furthermore, when participants were told the person was overweight because of over eating (person attribute), their implicit bias increased, however their implicit bias did not decrease when told that the person was overweight because of genetics (external factor). Also, reading stories designed to induce empathy for targets did not diminish the antifat attitudes • Heterosexism: stigmatizing any sexual orientation other than heterosexual • It has been shown that hetero-women have more negative attitudes toward lesbians and more positive attitudes toward gay men; hetero-men have more negative attitudes toward gay men and more positive attitudes toward lesbians • The perception of the controllability of one’s sexual orientation is also a question- about half of American’s believe that homosexuality is a lifestyle • There may be an authoritarian-like origin for homophobia, in that people who are less accepting of gender equality also tend to be less tolerant of gays • Ableism or Handicapsim: prejudice against people who are physically challenged • Juni and Roth showed that handicapped confederates were helped more than nonhandicapped confederates. This may indicate a belief that handicapped persons need more assistance and this assumption may stem from an underlying prejudice • Miller, Galanter, and Pribram defined the Control Theory or Feedback Theory which states that we are continually seeking to match our behaviour to internal standards for that behaviour, and we are motivated to reduce discrepancies between our standards and our behaviour. ○ Thus, we are constantly responding to feedback from our environment and adjusting our behaviour accordingly. This however presented a problem to the empirical investigations of researchers: if people are behaving according to internal standards (not just external forces), what is the cause and what is the effect?  How do you measure causation in a model of continuous feedback on behaviour? • Dynamic models of behaviour state that a particular behaviour can at the same time be both an effect of the preceding moment’s cause and a causal agent upon a variable in the following moment • Devine emphasized the importance of someone having negative expectations about interactions with outgroup members by stating that there are 2 kinds of low prejudice people: ○ Those who had extensive contact (EC) and interactions with members of the minority group ○ Those who had little contact (LC) and few interactions with the outgroup • Both of these low prejudice categories have egalitarian beliefs, but there are major diff
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