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Chapter 1

chapter 1 PSYC12.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 1 Introduction to the study of Stereotyping and Prejudice Humans have tendency to form groupsoBased on special skills family relations gender power etcGroups are basic building blocks of societyoPeople live longer happier more fulfilling lives together than aloneoAlso goes for animals alsoDisadvantages to groups includeoMate competitionretentionoBeing close to members of their own group and tend to be suspicious and rejecting of member of other groupsGroup members tend to favor their own groups ingroups over other groups to which they dont belong outgroupsThis goes even when people are based on the most arbitrary criteria eg assigning people to group A or group B an example of minimal group people tend to show preference for members of their own group over those of other groupsThese form the basics of negative feelings about other groups prejudice and for beilving that certain characteristics are associated with other groups forming sterotypesoDue to outgroup members are perceived to be antithetical incompatible to ingroups welfare or valuesoSuch ingroup preferences might underlie more severe negative behaviour toward other groups such as intergroup hostility and violence Virtually all of historys wars battles and other acts of group violence have been driven by some form of prejudice stereotyping andor discriminationSome of the most intense intergroup hostility has been based on difference in religious beliefs Lippmanns StereotypeInterestingly the word originally derives from a term to describe a printing stereotype process in which fixed casts of material are reproducedTerms adopted by social scientists when journalists Walter Lippmann used the word stereotype to describe the tendency of people to think of common feature shared by eachStereotypes fall us what social information is important ot perceive and to disregard in our environment oThe content of stereotypes is largely determined by the culture in which one lives Stereotyping From Bad to NeutralThere are a number of ways that researchers have defined stereotypes over the decades oResearchers soon began to regard stereotyping as a very negative lazy way of perceiving social groups oSterotyping was soon as an outward indicator of irrational nonanalytic cognition oSome researchers characterized stereotypes as examples of rigid thinkingoMany regarded stereotyping as an external sign of the stereotypes moral defectiveness Researchers began to move away from the inclusion of assessments of the morality or correctness of stereotype of the sterotyper oAllport moved away from including evaluative assessment of the goodness of steotyping or those who stereotypeoHe defined stereotype as an exaggerated belief associated with a categoryThe SocialCognitive DefinitionEarly 1970s birth of social cognition researchers came to regard stereotyping as a rather automatic process of categorization that many cognitive and social psychologists believe is inherent in the very nature of the way humans think about the world A stereotype is any generalization about a group whether an observer ether a member of the stereotyped group or another observer believes its justified or notBy definition a generalization about a group is bonded to be unjustified for some portion of the group membersHamiliton and Troliers definition of a stereotype as a cognition structure that contains the perceivers knowledge beliefs and expectations about a human groupoThis definition sounds more like the definition of a schema than of a sterotype
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