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PSYC12H3 (294)

C12: chp 6

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

Chp 6: Experiencing Prejudice Social Stigma: When you act in ways which are not normal ppl may treat you in a less than positive o Making you feel negative about yourself and those others o No1 likes to be the subject of negative evaulavations this is why so many ppl try to fit in with the majority Sigma o unusal characteristics that engender negative evaulavation are an indicator of stigma a stigmatized person is reduced in our minds from a whole and usual person to a tained discounted one o stigmas charactheristics that mark the individual as generally undesirable race, relgion, gender, age, sexual orientation physical, behavioural, psychological Types of stingma: o Abominations of the body physical deformities, weight o Blemishes of individual character dunkeness o Tribal stigmas race, nation, religon Group Identification: Individuals faced with external threats such as prejudice show strong ingroup identification Subsequent research has show that differ in the degree to which they associated with their stigmatized group High identifies o More likely to associated with their group even/especially when The group has a negative image o Derive much of their self esteem from their indetification as a group members o Less likely to seek collective strategies against group threat o In it for the long run Low identifies o More likely to diassociate from the group when the group has a negative image o No special affinity toward, derive no self esteem from their group o Prepared to let the group fall apart o More individualist and opportunistic Stereotype Threat: Ppl in steotyped groups find themselves tryong to not behave in ways that confirm sterotypes about the group Individuals in stereotyped group will often engage in performance limiting behavior o Practicing less for athletic event not sutyding prior to an exam o To provide themselves with an excuse for doing poorly on activites which they are stereotyped to do bad in o Like a black guy purposely not studying for an exam so when we get its back he can say he did bad b/c he didnt study not b/c hes black This type of behavior is refered to stereotype threat o You would think that to disconfirm your groups sterotypes the black guy would just study really hard o But o Research indicates that for many sterotypes the negative implications of confirming the steorytpe are so powerful that they can impair ones ability to behave in a counter stereotypic fashion The anxiety that some1 feels in thinking about possibly confirming the streoty it can impairs ones performance on the steortype relevant dimension thus confirming the sterotype A Chinese person so stressed about their driving test b/c if they fail it will confirm the Chinese driver stereotype and so this stress impairs their performance on the driving test and they fail it The stereotype threat works through influencing a drop in working memory capacity The strength of the sterotype threat increases with o stronger group indetification o individuals who are self conscious of their stigmatized status Black ppl: o Under sterotype threat causes physiological stress o In a threatned condition black ppl show a higher bpressure This may explain the higher rate of coronary heart disease in black ppl African American consistently avg 15 points les than white ppl on aptitude tests (roma aptitude means intelligence) o Wait a minite I got a gagan theory Gagan has been stereotyped as stupid this He is very self conciouss of this The anxiety of that impedes his ability of disproving the sterotype Back to black ppl o Some of the reason for this 15 point gap Socioeconomic disadvanatages Cultural biases in the discrimination tests Discrimination Stereotype threat Account for gap in subsequent achievement btw similarly prepared/environment African and whites Verbal test o Told it is measure of their intelligence (diagnostic) Black ppl < White ppl o Not told that (non-diagnostic) Black ppl = white ppl Made the stereotype about black ppl being dumb salient Black < white Sterotype Lift o Nonstigmatized ppl experience a performance enhacment when they engage in a downward comparison btw themselves and other stertotyped group o Even when black and white ppl are similarly prepared educationally the influence of stereotype lift may explain discrepencies in performance Self confidence and stereotype relevant dimension o Ppl higher in stereotype vulnerability Tendency to expect, perceive and be influenced by stereptype of one social category Aunties who think all the white ppl think they are bad cus they are brown o Tended to be the least in touch with the quality of their performace on a stereptype relevant task o Could not predict what they knew relative to the demands of the test Thus academic self confidence was subject to stronger fluctuation o Black person not being able to accurately predict how well they did on a academic test Women and stereotype threat Women sterotype sci and math o Experimetn Men and women matched with similar academic math background Told the test is to test their math skills diagnostic o Wom < men Not told that non diagnostic o Wom greater or equal to men Women do math test only women in group Sterotype become salient Poor result on test This same effect has been demonstrated Poor ppl being being stupid White ppl being racisit Experiment: African American participants test on intelligence Told that intelligence is not a fixed charactherisitc Performed better on intelligence tests more resistant to influence of stereotype threat Resilience to stereotype more difficult to the degree that one identifies to membership of the group Stereotype threat reduced o When the person is individuated making the persons indivdiudal ability salient o Distancing oneself from the group Simply remindg women about the great accomplisments of women in math increased their math test score The other side of the coin Positive stereotype and performance Asian women o Either made salient about being a women being asian self idenity o Test performance When ethinic identity was made salient they did badder than when their female or individual identity was made salient Another test found exactly the opposite So the answer is more research needs to be done Asian American Prejudice (Paul.) Envy of their perceived excessive inteletucal competence Disdain for their low sociability o This is more powerful in driving the prejudice
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