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Chapter 6

PSYC37: Chapter 6

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Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 6 Experiencing PrejudiceWant to understand the processes that lead to formation maintenance and reduction of prejudice we need to understand more about that perceivernot absolutely true Little research on experiences of stigmatized person and how stigmatized and nonstigmatized individuals regard each other in social interacitonsStereotyping and prejudice occur in dynamic social context involving perceiver and target reacting to each other involving feedback from target and confirms expectations of perceiver Among adults negative evaluations may take form of subtle negative comments rude behavior or other subtle expressions of prejudice Stigma unusual characteristic that enger negative evaluations Stigmatized person one who is reduced in our minds from a whole and unusual person to a tainted discounted one Stigmas are characteristics mark individual as deviated flawed limited spoiled or generally undesirable Stigma encompasses all more familiar situations predjudice is shownie race religion sexual orientation but it also covers any physical behavioural and psychological marker that elicits negative evaluationsGoffmans 3 types of stigmas abominations of body eg physical deformities being overweight blemishes of individual character ie drunkenness and tribal stigmas of race nation and religion eg prejudice against another raceGroup IdentificationIndividuals faced iwht external threats show shower ingroup identificationshown with Jews AA womenWhether individual strongly personally identified with stigmatized group will have major impact on degree to which that individual disassociates from groupHigh identifiers more likely to associate themselves with their group even when especially when it has a negative image derive their SE from identification as group member seek collective strategies against group threatLow identifiers more likely to dissociate selves from group especially when group has negative image no special affinity toward or derive SE from groupLow identifiers are more individualistic opportunistic and will only identify themselves with group when it would positively affect their social identityStereotype ThreatMost groups few widely known stereotypesSome individuals in stereotyped group find themselves ever vigilant about nto behaving in ways that confirm stereotypesOccasionally individuals in stereotyped groups will engage in performance limiting behaviorin order to provide them with ready excuse for their expected poor performance on stereotype relevant dimensionsStereotype threat negative impliciations of confirming stereotype are important enough that they can impair ones ability to behave in counterstereotypic way Anxiety one feels in thinking about possibly confirming stereotype can be so debilitating that it actually impairs ones perforamcne on stereotype relevant dimensionparadoxical effect of confirming stereotypeST effect through mediating influence of a drop in working memory capacity Likely to occur in people who strongly identify with groupand individuals who are self conscious of stigmatized status People under ST fare worse physiologicallyResearch shows Black ps in threatened conditions show significantly higher blood pressure than nonthreatened Help explain why Blacks have higher coronary heart disease and higher blood pressure Common stereotype AA perform poorly on intellectual tests on standardized aptitude and intelligence tests AA consistently scored 15 points lessSome of reasons for gapsocioeconomic reasons discrimination prejudiceHowever when both Blacks and Whites have same preparationBlacks still fare worsedue to ST When AA believed difficult verbal test measure of intellectual abilitydiagnostic underperformed compared to Whites but performed just as well when told not a measure of intelligence a problem solving task nondiagnosticSimilar results for studies with women and math or science tests poor people and intelligence tests Whites and IATanxiety of being racist Just by making stereotype salient impaired performance on task even in nondiagnostic task task unrelated to stereotypestereotype lift nonstigmatized persons experience a performance enhancement when they engage in downward comparison between themselves and member of stereotyped outgroup Influence o f stereotype lift may be contributing factor explain continued performance discrepancies btw Black and Whites even when have same preparationBeing member of stereotyped group affect degree of self confidence of performance of stereotype relevant dimensionThose higher in stereotype vulnerability tendency to expect perceive influenced by stereotypes tended to be least in touch with quality of performance on stereotype relevant task not able to accurately predict what they knew according to demands of task academic self confidence fluctuated ST can be subject to changeIn a study AA ps told that the stereotypeintelligence was malleable not fixed characteristicled to better performance Ability to be unaffected by stereotype becomes much more difficult to the degree that ones identity is closely tied to membership in that groupST effects reduced when people from stereotyped group are individuated making own abilities salient distancing oneslf from groupoutperform nonindividuated counterparts More research needed to identify specific additive ie positive stereotypes and individual effects that stereotypes about ones various ingroups can have one cognition and behavior Lin prejudice has two components envy of perceived excessive intellectual competence and disdain for their perceived low sociability It is low sociability that primarily drives anti Asian American prejudice Data support central tenet of Fiskes stereotype content modelSCMstates that many stereotypes located along two dimensionswarmth and competence Summary stereotypes about group impair ones perforamcne on salient ego and identity relevant tasks Although stereotyped individuals motivated to do well on taskstend to be inefficient because attention is split btw alternating of getting answer correct and anxiety of their performance Disidentification individuals disengage their identity from achievement domain in question such that their self esteem and sense of self competence is preserved and shielded from negative effects of associated identity with performance on stereotype relevant dimension ie women may disidentify with maths blacks disidentify with academics process allows stigmatized to retain self esteem stigmatized individuals show higher SEmore likely to show disidentification likely to see stereotype threat dimension as unimportant for their self identitytrigger disidentification devaluing importance of stereotype threat domain discounting validitydisengage from stereotype threat dimension and protect their SE ie disenchanted AA devalue academic success by derogating other AA who pursue academics as acting White or distancing themselves from culture of origin academically achieving AA more likely to experience feelings of depression and anxiety compared with peers who were not academically successful
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