Textbook Notes (362,796)
Canada (158,054)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYC12H3 (294)
Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 1Groups are the basic building blocks of societyWhen people form groups they tend to form closer ties to members of their own groupfavour their own groups ingroups over other groups outgroupsTrue even when arbitrarily assigned to groupsSuch a preference forms the basis for negative feelings about other groups prejudice and for believing that certain characteristics are associated with other groups forming stereotypesSuch negative attitudes also form the basis for subsequent negative intergroup behaviourSome believe that prejudice and stereotyping are no longer a problem in US as a result of desegregation the Voting Rights Act and affirmative action policiesAlthough overt expressions of racial prejudice have declined racism has not disappeared DEFINING STEREOTYPING Lippmans StereotypeStereotype originally used to describe a printing processLippmann used the word stereotype to describe the tendency of people to think of someone or something in similar termsthat is having similar attributesbased on a common feature shared by eachStereotypes tell us what social information is important to perceive and to disregard in our environmentthis process confirms preexisting stereotypes by paying attention to stereotypeconsistent information and disregarding information that is inconsistent with our stereotypesLippmann in his definition does not express any particular evaluation of the nature of stereotyping Stereotyping From Bad to NeutralOther researchers saw stereotyping as an outward indicator of irrational nonanalytic cognitionSome Adorno Brunswik Levinson Sanford characterized stereotypes as examples of rigid thinkingMany regarded stereotyping as an external sign of the stereotypers moral defectivenessALLPORT did not include evaluative assessments of the goodness of stereotyping or those who stereotypes instead defined it as a stereotype is an exaggerated belief associated with a category SocialCognition DefinitionResearchers came to regard stereotyping as a rather automatic process of categorization that many cognitive and social psychologists believe is inherent in the very nature of the way humans think about the worldBRIGHAMs definition a generalization made about a group concerning a trait attribution which is considered to be unjustified by an observerProblem with the second half a stereotype is any generalization about a group whether an observer believes it is justified or notHAMILTONTROLIER a cognitive structure that contains the perceivers knowledge beliefs and expectations about a human groupToo broad and includes ones knowledge and expectations about the groupSounds more like a definition of a schema then a stereotypeSchemas are broader cognitive structures that contain our knowledge of a stimulus our expectations for the motives or behaviour of the stimulus and our feelings toward the stimulusASHMOREDEL BOCA a set of beliefs about the personal attributes of a group of people used today CulturalIndividual StereotypesCultural stereotype describes shared or communitywide patterns of beliefsIndividual stereotype describes the beliefs held by an individual about the characteristics of a group
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