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PSYC12H3 (298)
Chapter 5

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Semester
Winter

Description
CHAPTER 5: Old Fashion Prejudice vs. Modern Prejudice Katz and Braly (1933) • Landmark study, early research on the content of racial stereotypes • Recall classic study fr Ch 1 o White college students given (84) traits and asked to describe them as Caucasian or African American in nature o Not surprisingly • most the negative traits were attributed to blacks • i.e. superstitious, laxy, ignorant • most positive views were held to Caucasians • i.e. industrious, intelligent, ambiguous • In that social, legal and political climate, racism was accepted, so explicit racist results like these were not hard to come by • Changes since then (human rights movement) has lead to a different climate surrounding prejudice • While most researchers agree White American has indeed reduced neg views + prej towards Blacks…there’s compelling evidence that the extent of this attitude/prejudice change is not as dramatic as once believed Are Low-Prejudice People Really Low-prejudice • Problems with Katz and Braley study o (1) Sample – predominantly white upper-class males • Limits generalizability o (2)Methodology required active thinking of a particular trait, and fit it into a group • Stereotypes are automatic, so cant be studied this way • Result using this checklist format are more a reflection of the words then of the schematic content of the respondents stereotype Ehrlich and Rinehart • Gave the checklist from Katz and Braly to half their subjects • Told the other half to list all the words they could think of (open ended) o This is a good way to get an idea of the content of stereotypes at any given time o Adjective generation technique • The changes in the words – indicates chaning stereotypes over time Devine and Elliot (1995) • This study – does not measure knowedlge of stereotypes but rather personal beliefs about the truth of the stereotype • It is important to distinguish between personal beliefs about stereotypes and knowledge of those stereotypes • They believe the checklist approach actually studies belief of stereotype, but not knowledge o Althought It appears by this checklist that negative black beliefs have decreased stereotypes have not yet decreased The civil rights movements pushing racism and overt stereotypes underground White people have this sense of ambivilience - trouble with equality - post civil right movment era – reffered to as search for equality - white ppl have this ambi – cuacsions overtly embrace egalatarinism and yet harbour ill feeling toward the black man Modern Racism • Some whites are ambivalent towards African Americans o These people are conflicted between their anti-black feelings and their beliefs that racism and discrimination are wrong • No problem with equality they beef with how that equality is reached • They have problems with social institutions that promote equality o They call these things special treatment (hiring preferences, affirmative action) • Modern Racists believe o Discrimination is a thing of the past o Blacks are too pushy, trying to get into places they are not wanted o Demands of blacks are unfair o Gains the blacks have seen are undeserved and unfair • Modern racists don’t see themselves as racists – think racism is only “old-fashion” racism • Their racisims is disguised and thus dissonances is avoided • McConahay – developed Modern Racism Scale (MRS) o Mondern racisim scale – measures subtle prejudice • Critism – Is the term Modern Racism conceptually different from “old-fashion” racism Symbolic Racism • The old fashin overt racist – has been replaced by this guy • Blend of Anti-black affect and traditional protestant work ethic o These guys tent to resist changing the racial status quo o They have ambivalent feelings toward races • Why is the term called symbolic? o Because the racism stems from a general belief that blacks violate protestant ethic. Its not about self-interest • Deny holding racist sentiment • In theoery these ppl would like other groups if they matched the protestant ethic of America – but their prejudice would bias their ability to see that – therefore they are unlikey to be convinced that other groups are hardworking • Highlights link between values and racism • These people don’t like “black individualism” • Say they like anygroup which adheres to their ideals (protestant work ethic) o But this view is tainted • They can even express these feeling openly without having feelings of dissonance b/c the source of these feeling si not personal interest but general American values • Highlitins the important of the link btw values and racial attitudes o Values conflicts in whits leads to abivalent attitudes towards black s • These guy don’t like programs like affirtive action and stuff like that • Symbolic racism may be grounded in black individualism o Concern that black do not live up to conservative values – embodied by the protestant ethic o Specifically the values of individualism o These idea is in favour of symbolic racism – it takes the side saying that it is a distinct category of racisim • Criticism of Symbolic racism o Ill-defined concept o Other concepts can define opposition toward social change a lot better  Realistic group conflict  Social dominance theory o Again, how is this different from old fashion racism? Aversive Racism • Racisit history of America + cog tenden to categorize info = sublte yet common place racist beleifes and feeling in white Americans • Ppl that posses these sublt racist beliefs alongside strong egalitarian values o Reflects  Learned negative attitudes – 2ward black ppl  Their commitment to egalitarian values and beliefs • These people have strong egalitatian values but also racist feelings and beliefs • Deny conscious awareness of their negative attitudes or prejudice towards blacks • Do eveyrhting they can to not say prejudice things • However their prejudice is reflected in o Pro white behaviour o Ingroup favouritism o Not old fashion prejudicial expressions or outgroup derogation • Underlying biases, pro-white sentiment, ingroup favouritism • They don’t want to view themselves as racists • Unclear social prohibition o Express prejudice in subltlte easily justifiable fashion • Antiprejudice social norm o Not behave in a racist fasion o Appear strongly egalitarian • In presences of a black person o Old fashion racist  Openly displays hatred and beliefs of superiority o Aversive racist  Experience more sublt feelings of “discomfort, uneasiness, disgust, and sometimes fear” Experiment: • White is the person hiring o Black and white job applicants • Over a 10 year period of time – self reported racist expression decline s • Sublte underlyprejudice – remains relatively constant • Study o Clearly superior black applicant  Hired the black person  No underlying prejudice observed o Black and white =  Subtle underlying hosptilty for the black emerged  Hired the white candidate most of the time In Sum, • Symbolic and modern racism = Political Conservatives • Aversive racism = Political Liberals • These negative racial attitudes are aquired early in childhood – primarily through parental attitudes – an
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