Textbook Notes (363,383)
Canada (158,358)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYC12H3 (294)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 6: Experience Prejudice Stereotyping and prejudice occur in a dynamic social context involving perceiver and target reacting to each other Social Stigma Goffman: unusual characteristics that engender negative evaluations as being indicators of stigma Stigmas- characteristics that mark the individual as deviant, flawed, limited, spoiled, or generally undesirable Goffman: 3 types of stigmas- abominations of the body (overweight), blemishes of individual character (drunkenness), tribal stigmas of race, nation, religion (prejudice against another race) Group Identification Individuals faced with external threats show stronger ingroup identification Doosje: people differ in degree to which they identify with their stigmatized group High-identifiers are much more likely to associate themselves with their group, even when it has negative image o Derive much of self-esteem from identification as group member o Tend to make it clear that they are fully committed, loyal group members Low-identifiers, much more likely to dissociate themselves from group, especially when group is negative o Feel no special affinity toward or derive no self-esteem from group o Doosje: low identifiers seem quite prepared to let group fall apart when group is threatened or has negative image o Much more individualistic and opportunistic in that they will only identify themselves with group when it would positively affect social identity Stereotype Threat Steele: stereotype threat- occasionally, individuals in stereotyped groups will engage in performance-limiting behaviour in order to provide them with a ready excuse for their expected poor performance on stereotype-relevant dimension Effects of stereotype threat are especially likely to occur in people who strongly identify with group about which stereotype exists and in individuals who are self-conscious of their stigmatized status People under stereotype threat actually fare worse physiologically than their non- threatened counterparts Black participants in a threatened condition showed significantly higher blood pressure than non- threatened counterparts Steele: debilitating effects of stereotype threat may account for gap in subsequent achievement between similar scoring African Americans and Caucasians o When Black participants believed that difficult verbal test was measure of intellectual ability, they underperformed compared to Whites in ability-diagnostic condition but performed as well as Whites in non-diagnostic condition Walton: stereotype lift- non-stigmatized persons seem to experience a performance enhancement when they engage in downward comparison between themselves and member of a stereotyped outgroup Aronson: stereotype vulnerability- tendency to expect, perceive, and be influenced by stereotypes about ones social category o those higher in stereotype vulnerability ten to be least in touch with quality of their performances on stereotype-relevant task some found stereotype threat effect in Whites who take Implicit Association Test (finding preference for Whites) arising from anxiety about obtaining score that might indicate they are racist stereotype threat effects can be reduced significantly when people from stereotyped group are individuated www.notesolution.com
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