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Chapter 2

ch.2 for PSYC14

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC14H3
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 2: Cross-Cultural Research (CCR) Methods CCR is conducted within its own set of parameters Cross-Cultural Comparisons (CCC) These are studies that compare cultures on some psychological variable of interest CCCs serve as a backbone of CCR, and are the most prevalent type of cross-cultural study LIMITATION: cannot be sure of what aspect of culture, if any, produced the differences Equivalence It is the state or condition of similarity in conceptual meaning and empirical method between cultures that allows comparisons to be meaningful Equivalence means that if any aspect of a CC study is not entirely equal in meaning or method across the cultures being compared, then the comparison loses its meaning Only if theoretical framework and hypotheses have equivalent meaning in the cultures being compared and if the methods of data collection, mgt, and analysis have equivalent meaningwill result from the comparison be meaningful Lack of equivalence is known as bias Linguistic Equivalence This refers to whether the research protocolsitems on questionnaires, instructions, etc.used in CC study are semantically equivalent across the various languages included in the study Two procedures to establish LE: o Back translation: involves taking the research protocol in one language, translating it to the other language(s), and having someone else translate it back to the original If back translated version is the same as the original, they are generally considered equivalent End product must be a semantic equivalent to the original language Original language is decentered through this process, with any culture-specific concepts of the original language eliminated or translated equivalently into the target language; culture-specific meanings and connotations are gradually eliminated from the research protocols so that what remains is something that is the closest semantic equivalent in each language Decenter is the concept underlying the procedure of back translation that involves eliminating any culture-specific concepts of the original language or translating them equivalently into the target language o Committee approach: several bilingual informants collectively translate a research protocol into a target language They debate the various forms, words and phrases that can be used in the target language, comparing them with their understanding of the language of the original protocol Product reflects translation that is shared consensus of the linguistically equivalent protocol across languages and cultures They can use both together protocol may be initially translated and back-translated and then the translation and back-translation can be used as an initial platform from which a translation committee works on the protocol, modifying the translation in ways that seem most appropriate, using the back- translation as a guideline The translations may not be exactly the same; just because something has the same name in two or more cultures does not mean that it has the same meaning or that it can be measured in the same way Measurement Equivalence Refers to the degree to which measures used to collect data in different cultures are equally valid and reliable Validity refers to whether a measure accurately measures what it is supposed to measure Reliability refers to how consistently a measure measures what it is suppose to measure Different cultures may conceptually define a construct differently and/or measure it differently www.notesolution.com Researchers need to be keenly aware of the issue of equivalence with regard to their conceptual definitions and empirical operationalization of the variables (the way researchers conceptually define a variable and measure it) in their study Psychometric equivalence ME on the statistical level o Factor analysis: used to examine the structure of questionnaire; factor analysis creates groups of the items on a questionnaire based on how the responses to them are related to each other o The groups, called factors, are thought to represent different mental constructs in the minds of the participants responding to the items o Scores are then computed to represent each of these mental constructs o When using questionnaires across cultures, one concern that arises is whether the same groups of items or factors would emerge in the different culturesif so measure said to have structural equivalence If structurally nonequivalent then different cultural groups have different mental constructs operating when responding to same questionnaire so their responses may not be comparable to each other o Internal reliability can be assessed by examining whether the items on a questionnaire are all related to each other; if they are supposed to be measuring the same mental construct, then items should be related to each other Cross-Cultural Validation Studies there is need to conduct studies to test the reliability and validity of measures in different cultures in order to be sure they can be used in various cultures, thereby ensuring the CC ME of the measure used CCVS examine whether a measure of a psychological construct that was originally generated in a single culture is applicable, meaningful and most importantly psychometrically equivalent (equally reliable and valid) in another culture These studies dont test a specific hypothesis about cultural differences; rather, they test the equivalence
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