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Sisi Tran (101)


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Sisi Tran

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Ch13: morality, religion and justice Secularization theory: holds that religion is on the decline, and that ppl around the world are discovering new secular and rational ways to make sense of their lives  Universalism, evolutionism and relativism - universalism : perspective that sees ppl from diff cultures as largely the same and that any observed cultural variability exists only at a superficial level o if you say “tomato” and I say “tomahto”, we’re talking abt the same thing. These differences are of little significance o cultural variability only exists at a superficial level, it vanishes on closer inspection - relativism: this perspective maintains that cultural diversity in ways of thinking is not superficial but reflects genuinely diff psychological processes o culture and thought are mutually constructed o they expect ways of thinking to vary - evolutionism: similar to relativism, this perspective maintains that cultural variability reflects genuine differences in psychological processes o also similar to universalism, this perspective maintains that there really is only one way that the mind has evolved to think o interprets cultural differences in ways of thinking as reflecting increasing stages of development o some ways of thinking are more mature and advanced than others, and ppl of diff cultures would all think in the same ways once they reached the same point of development or participated in a cultural context that allowed for the full expression of the mind’s capability  Ethnocentrism and interpreting cultural variability o Thinking in ways consistent with our cultural values and evaluating practices in terms of how well they fit with our culture views to be good or bad o Cultures can be ranked according to any variable, but the problem is in choosing the variable that makes sense  Kohlberg’s stages of moral development - derived from evolutionist perspective - framework for understanding ppl’s abilities to reason morally in all cultures of the world  Level 1: the preconventional level - ppl understand the cultural roles and labels and know what is good or bad - calculation of how much better or worse off they would be for acting a certain way - morality is based on how they behave to get the best overall return  Level 2: the conventional level - ppl identify themselves with a group or social order and show loyalty - morality is based on following and maintaining the rules - individuals should not question where those rules come from  Level 3: the postconventional level - moral values are seen to exist separately from the authority of the social groups that hold them - moral decisions are based on logical extensions of those principles and consider what is right or wrong - moral reasoning that emphasizes abstract ethical principles based on justice and individual rights  Cross-cultural evidence for kohlberg’s model - lack of reasoning abt justice and individual rights among tribal and folk populations suggests to relativist that there might be diff categories of moral reasoning that are missing from kohlberg’s framework - this model applies well to westerners but not equally applicable to non-westerners - fail to generalize to other cultures other than western world  Ethics of autonomy, community and divinity o Ethic of autonomy : views morality in terms of individual freedom and rights violations - an act would be considered immoral under the ethic of autonomy when it directly hurts another person or infringes on another’s rights and freedoms as an individual - eg: stealing some one’s lunch money is immoral bc it causes harm to that person o Ethic of community: individuals have duties that conform with their roles in a community or social hierarchy - actions are seen as wrong when individuals fail to perform their duties - eg: son’s failure to attend his parents’ wedding anniversary celebration bc he doesn’t feel like it - if you don’t live up to the duties and obligations associated with one’s roles o Ethic of divinity: concerned with sanctity and perceived “natural order” of things - belief that God created a sacred world and it is everyone’s resp
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