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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC14H3
Professor
Sisi Tran
Semester
Fall

Description
Ch14: emotions  What is an emotion?  The james-lange theory of emotions -our emotions are the physiological responses or “bodily reverberations” to stimuli -changes in HR, breathing, pupil dilation, tear secretion, blood flow to the skin, stomach contractions -our bodies prepare us to react in a survival-facilitating way (running away from the bear) -emotions tell us how to react/behave  The two-factor theory of emotions -Walter Cannon thinks differently, he criticized james-lange theory and said that our autonomic nervous system cannot be accountable for the emotions we feel -This view, (named for the factors of the physiological signals and the interpretation of those signals), redirected the focus of emotions away from the physical body and into the mind -P. 533 (Schacter and Singer) -James-lange theory suggests an evolutionary origin  Does emotional experience vary across cultures?  Emotions and facial expressions - facial expressions are part of our biological makeup, and should be the same worldwide  Evidence for cultural universals in facial expressions -tendencies for humans and chimpanzees to express emotions in similar ways due to common ancestor -this has been criticized bc these cultures are not all that diff, they may have learned to express these emotions so Ekman’s soln was to find a culture that had least possible exposures to Western ways -emotion universality was strengthened when Fore made the same facial expressions that Westerners did -6 basic emotions: anger, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise and disgust  Evidence for cultural variability in facial expressions -ppl find it easier to identify emotions of persons from their own culture -Japanese ppl find it easier to identify emotions by looking at the top half of the photos (focusing on the eyes) whereas americans find it easier to look at the bottom half of the photos (focusing on the mouth)  Cultural display rules o Rules that govern what facial expressions are appropriate in a given situation and how intensely they should be exhibited o Ritualized displays: voluntarily produced emotional expressions such as tongue bite suggest the existence of cultural display
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