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Ch11.psyc14.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC14H3
Professor
Sisi Tran
Semester
Fall

Description
Ch11: physical health Bipedalism - cooled the body by reducing the amt of direct sunlight that struck the body and by exposing upper body to the wind - efficiency for long distance travelling Wearing shoes changes the shape of the foot - Laetoli footprints are wider with a larger gap btwn first two toes and a higher arch (they didn’t wear shoes) - Humans that wore shoes show footprints that have their first two toes closer tgt and a lower arch Wearing shoes can also change the way we run - ppl running barefeet land on fore-feet or mid-feet - ppl running with shoes land on rear-feet - anecdotal reports show that running barefoot leads to reduced injury rates Culture experiences not only shape the way we think, but also affect our bodies and health Biological variability of humans (innate and acquired biological differences)  genetic variation across populations - humans continue to evolve everyday in response to selection pressures from their environment - humans emerged in Africa with high UVR levels, and evolved to have enough melanin in their skin to allow sufficient UVR to penetrate to synthesize vitamin D, but not enough to break down the folic acid - with less melanin in their skin, humans absorbed relatively more UVR when UVR levels were low, having a survival advantage over darker-skinned relatives - skin color and genetic adaption to local climate represent some domains of genetic differences across poplns - other egs in textbook include lactose intolerance, the amt of starch intake in food by certain cultures, alcohol consumption, developing more resistance to malaria - relations btwn genes and psychological variables across cultures find opposite effects of genes across cultures  acquired physical variation across cultures - sometimes skills are developed through practice o obesity and diet - some cultures have overweight ppl but that does not mean they carry overweight genes, bc its likely that they rely heavily on high-calorie food such as fast food and soda, larger portion sizes or they might also engage in less active life such as, playing computer games all the time - over the past few decades, ppl in many parts of the world have been getting heavier - “French paradox” – combination of a rich diet in fats yet lower rates of heart disease has puzzled researchers for decades. One explanation can be bc French drink more wine than americans or they may eat fewer calories per day - Rozin and colleagues found that the amt of food ppl is eat is whats infront of them, eg: how much yogurt a person will eat depends on the size of the container; studies show that yogurt containers in US is abt 80% bigger than in France and US fries contains 70% more fries than in France. Rozin found that excess caloric consumption may me one factor behind obesity and heart diseases in the states - Cultural changes is affecting our health through the kind of food intake by diff cultures - French ppl take more time in consuming their food. They view eating as leisurely and an enjoyable activity. Studies found that French spend approx. 50% longer eating their food than americans do, despite the fact that they were consuming fewer fries - If they were to pick a luxury hotel with avg food or an avg hotel with excellent food- French ppl chose the avg hotel whereas americans chose a luxurious hotel - American women have the most –ve attitudes toward food than do men o culture and height
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