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Sisi Tran

ch 9: interpersonal attraction, close relationships and groups interpersonal attraction - presence of culture variations in what is viewed as attractive - what kind of faces are attractive? o Complexion: preferences for healthy looking ppl (free of pimples and blemishes) bc according to evolutionary reasoning, ppl want healthy mates to produce offspring that would survive o Bilateral symmetry: left sides of the face being identical to the right side; indicator of development stability && it all relates back to whether the person is healthy or not (ppl with asymmetrical faces are considered to have encountered genetic mutations, pathogens and stresses) o Faces are attractive when they tend to be avg: we perceive attractive faces as those that are close to the avg in size and in configuration - But there is much variation in the kinds of bodies that are viewed as most attractive. Eg: African- americans have heavier ideal body weights and European-americans prefer thinness  Other bases of interpersonal attraction - propinquity effect: ppl becoming best friends with each other bc of frequent interaction o our friendships are chosen by the situational factors that bring us tgt o mere exposure effect: the more we are exposed to a stimulus, the more we are attracted to it  Similarity-attraction effect - ppl tend to be attracted to those who are most like themselves - similarity in terms of attitudes, economic bg, personality, religion, social bg, activities - similarity-attraction effect is not as fundamental as mere exposure effect - Canadians liked a stranger they considered very similar to themselves, Japanese attitudes toward strangers were unaffected by perceived similarity close relationships  Friends and enemies - quality of one’s friendships is one of the best predictors of happiness - 71% of Ghanaians claimed that they were targets of enemies coming from members in their ingroup (such as neighbors, friends or relatives) whereas americans who feel that they have enemies were more likely to view those enemies as coming from outside their grp such as those who help ethnic prejudices against their group - high relational mobility (common among independent selves): if ppl find one relationship not rewarding enough, the move on to form new relationships with others that prove to be more rewarding – their relational ties are flexible and opportunities for new relationships are available enough, that the can find new relationships and not feel overly bound by their old relationships. Eg: a college student moving away from home, and to live among many others & forming new relations with other groups through shared classes, dorms, student clubs - low relational mobility (common among interdependent self-concepts): few opportunities to form new relationships bc they are born into an already existing network of relatives and family members; their commitments and obligations to them continue to guide them; ppl can sometimes not get along with each other hence developing –ve attitudes (eg: you may not like your in-laws but you continue to maintain relations with them) - ppl form relations for diff reasons - “halo effect”: attractive ppl are assumed to possess other positive features that is beneficial to them - ppl also have diverse consequences depending on whether their lifestyle is considered as stable (grew up in one place) or have moved multiple times in their lives (p. 357-358) - cultural differences in friendships can be understood in terms of ways that ppl present themselves to others – being friendly, hospitable, etc (simpatico in latin-america)  Love - from an evolutionary perspective, parents must have enough love for their infants to take care of them otherwise it will be difficult for the infants to rcv enormous amts of care they need to survive - love is very imp in a marriage; majority of the cultures said that they won’t marry someone if it wasn’t for love - marriages based on love were more likely in cultures with nuclear fam structures than they were in cultures with extended fam systems - the larger the number of imp fam relationships there are that one needs to consider, the more problematic it becomes to ignore their concerns and follow the passion of one’s heart - romantic relationships are more common in individualistic than collectivistic cultures - p. 363: European-canadians perceive the quality of their own romantic relationships to be far superior to those of other ppl. A similar bias holds for Asian-canadians and Japanese, but it is much smaller - assumptions abt love: 1) belief that you will only love someone you have chosen for yourself. However, feelings of love for the spouse usually develops over time 2) love is ultimately an individualistic choice. Ppl in individualistic cultures feel that they will only marry someone who they get along with by connecting in a unique way. For collectivistic cultures, ppl who enter arranged marriages usually trust that their families have found the right person for them 3) a marriage that does not have love at the foundation is bound to be miserable; but studies show that the more importance we give to love in a marriage, the less successful we seem to be at doing it  higher divorce rates in western cultures - men in Japanese arranged marriages were found to be more satisfied than those in love marriages and men in chinese arranged marriages were as satisfied as those in love marriages. However, women in jap and chinese arranged marriages were found to be less satisfied in arranged than love marriages - studies show that ppl in love marriages report more love than those in arranged marriages in the first few yrs of marriage. In later yrs, however, those in arranged marriages profess more love than those in love marriages Groups  Relation with ingroups and outgroups - in a collectivistic culture, it is very hard for an outgroup member to enter an ingroup whereas the boundary distinguishing IG from OG is less consequential for those with independent selves in individualistic cultures - a study investigated how European-americans and Asian-americans children responded when they were able to ma
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