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Ch 7 motivation.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC14H3
Professor
Sisi Tran
Semester
Fall

Description
CH.7 MOTIVATION  We are motivated to pursue things we want and avoid things we don’t want. We want tings tht improve the quality of our lives such as getting access to material rewards, having stimulating rltnships, earning respsect frm peers Motivations for Self-Enhancement and Self-Esteem  Self-enhancement is the motivation to view oneself positively.  Self-serving biases are tendencies for ppl to exaggerate hw good they think they are.  Ppl who are motivated to secure a positive self-view are often resourceful enough to figure out a way to get one.  Downward social comparison: comparing ur performance with someone else’s who is doing worse than you. This way we create a favorable comparison that casts our own performance in a positive light.  Upward social comparison: comparing performance with someone who is better than you  Compensatory self-enhancement: acknowledge the poor grade you got in class but you instead to start think abt ur excellent skills in other field. This when you try to self-enhance by recruiting other kinds of positive thoughts abt urself  Discounting: reducing the perceived importance of the domain in which you performed poorly.  External attribution: attribute cause of actions to something outside ourselves. Internal attribution is locating cause within ourselves such as our abilities  Bask in the reflected glory: emphasizing connection to successfully performing others and feel btr abt ourselves by sharing in the warm glow of others’ success.  East Asians may be more motivated to enhance their grp selves rather than their individual selves and comparisons of ppl’s individual self-enhancing don’t capture grp self-enhancing motivations. Studies show that Westerners show stronger motivations than East Asians to enhance their group selves as well  Westerners tend to be self-enhancing whereas East Asians do not evaluations of owned objects do differ across cultures. The endowment effect is significantly stronger in western samples than in East Asian ones and in some situations East Asians even appear to show a reverse effect  East Asians appear to feel as good abt themselves as do Westerners based on answers to a test tht measures unconscious associations between the self and other positive and negative words. Studies suggest tht east Asians like themselves as much as westerners. However, when it comes to assessment of their competence, east Asians appear to be ore self-critical  Study with children’s stories- European Americans parents focused on past success of the child. Taiwanese parents were more likely to tell stories abt past transgressions of the child. American stories thus focused children’s attention on their strengths, whereas Taiwanese parents were more likely to focus on children’s attention on areas tht needed correcting  European American parents viewed self-esteem as central to child rearing and saw it as a positive quality tht enhanced chidren’s dvlpmnt whereas Taiwanese parents had little to say abt the words tht most closely approximated self-esteem and what they did hae to say abt it was oftem somewhat negative  Predestination is the idea tht before we were born, it had already been determined whether we were one of the fortunate elect who would spend eternity in blessed heaven after our passing or go to hell. People made greater efforts to interpret their situation in a favorable light.  The average self-esteem o American college students increased over the last few decades. Higher than their parents’ generation as individualism has increased Motivations for Face and Self-Improvement  To have positive self-view is to have high self-esteem  Another way is to have good deal of face which is the amnt of social value others give you I u live up to the standards associated with ur position. The higher ur social position, greater the amnt of face tht is available to you st - 1 characteristic of face: Face is easily lost than gained. To get higher position u have to be promoted which can’t happen easily and can be lost if they don’t live up to the standards. - It is always vulnerable and because others determine a person’s face, ppl must count on the goodwill of others to be able to maintain their face - People should be cautious and try not losing something which is called prevention orientation. - Concern over advancing oneself and aspiring for gains is known as promotion orientation. - Promotion focus is when we are securing on good things and prevention focus we are trying to avoid bad things. - Study showed that cdns more likely to persist on a task for which they think they are talented, whereas Japanese persist more on tasks for which they believe they are untalented - Self-improvement motivation is a desire to seek potential weaknesses and work on correcting them is a strong motivation in East Asian context - 2 characteristic of face is that it involves a concern with hw others are viewing oneself. Unlike self-esteem, which involves individual evaluating himself or herself, face is maintained only when others evaluate oneself positively. Steps people take to ensure that others think of them positively. 1. Make a prevention orientation to identify any weaknesses tht might jeopardize their face. 2. Present oneself to others in a way tht would enhance one’s face. Religion and Achievement Motivation  Weber viewed capitalism as the product of people’s deriving meaning from a particular cultural context. He proposed that capitalism grew out of a belief system that was rooted in a number of cultural ideas  Martin Luther he founder of Protestantism proposed that each individual had a calling where each person has a unique God given purpose o fulfill during their moral existence. The idea was that we are all God’s servants in the world and we each are given a specific duty or job to take care of while we tend the planet  Protestantism resulted in work becoming seen as a spiritual task. Hence, Protestants who were led to think ab spiritual quests should become motivated to work harder. Study showed tht notions of hard work and salvation are implicitly linked for Americans.  A second notion of weber’s thesis is that Protestants should be entirely focused on their work and maintain a rather detached attitude toward potential distractions like other people because of the sacred nature of their work. You can work hard and play hard but not mix the two  Another key point about Weber’s argument was that Protestant anxiety about salvation was the driving forced behind their work ethic. Agency and Control  The most fundamental way culture can shape our motivations is through our perceptions of control.  A theory we possess that is relevant to our experiences of control is whether we perceive our identities to be easily malleable and changeable or stable and fixed. In addition to the implicit theories we have about malleability of the self, there is malleability of the world too. We can see the world as something fixed and beyond our control to change known as entity theory of the world or we can think of the wrld as flexible and responsive to our efforts to change it known as incremental theory of t
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