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Chapter 8

CH.8 cognition and perception.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sisi Tran

CH.8 COGNITION AND PERCEPTION Analytic and Holistic Thinking  Taxonomic category is a stimuli are grpd in according to the perceived similarity of their attributes. It is common among westerners  Thematic categorization strategy is that stimuli are grpd together on the basis of causal, temporal, or spatial rltnshps among them. It is common among east Asians  Analytic thinking: focus on objects and their attributes. Objects perceived as existing independently from their contexts and they are understood in terms of their component parts. The attributes tht mke up objects are used as a basis for categorizing them, and a set of fixed abstract rules is used to predict and explain the behavior of these objects. More common in western cultures (independent culture)  Holistic thinking: orientation to the context as a whole. An associative way of thinking which gives attention to the relations among objects and among objects and the surrounding context. Objects are understood in terms of how they relate to the rest of the context and behavior is predicted and explained on the basis of those relationships. It emphasizes knowledge gained through experience rather than application of fixed abstract rules. More common in Eastern cultures (interdependent culture) Attention  It follows tht analytic thinkers, who tend to perceive the wrld as consisting of discrete objects would be more likely to focus their attention on separate parts of a scene- those pars tht represent discrete objects of interest. Holistic thinkers who tend to perceive the wrld as consisting of interrelated whole should direct their attention more broadly across an entire scene  The Rorschach is a projective test in which ppl report wht they see in an ambiguous stimulus. E>A described single aspect of the card whereas C.A more likely to give whole card responses, describing wht they saw based on the entire image on the card  Rod and Frame task- the rod and surrounding frame are rotated independently. The frame provides misleading info abt the angle of the rod, so it is necessary to ignore the frame to correctly identify the angle of the rod. Ppl who are high on field independence can do this task well. Analytic thinkers with their tendency to perceive the wlrd as separate object should fare well on this task. They tend to show field independence- they can separate objects frm their background fields. Holistic thinkers tend to show field dependence where they view objects as bound to their objects. Those who are more outgoing are more field dependent than ppl who are more introverted.  Study with fish image: American participants recall fish that they have seen, regardless of the background against which they are presented, Japanese recall fish shown with their original background significantly better than those shown with a novel background. Americans tended to perceive fish separately from the background, their recall was not influenced by whether the fish was presented with the original or a novel background. The Japanese participants, seem to have seen the fish and the background scenery as bound together. When background changed, the fish no longer look quite the same  Another study with eye tracker to determine where someone is looking at a given instant- task for participants was to identify emotion the target person was experiencing. Results showd tht Japanese judgments of the target person’s emtl expression were influenced by expressions of the ppl in background whereas expressions of the backgrnd ppl had no impact on the judgments of faces for the Americans. Americans focus more on center figure than Japanese especially after the first second has passed  Saccades are extremely quick eye movements tht shift ppl’s gaze frm one fixation point to another. Compared to the Americans, Chinese were more systematically scanning the entire scene  Our eye movements occur outside of our voluntary control  Inability to detect change in a scene is known as change blindness Understanding Other People’s Behaviors  Trying to understand ppl’s behavior by considering their inner characteristics is an extension of an analytic way of thinking. It involves understanding objects by identifying their underlying attributes and this is akin to trying to understand ppl and their behavior by considering their inner qualities such as personality traits- dispositional attributes  Explaining ppl’s behaviour based on situations is extension of holistic way of thinking. It requires considering the individual’s relations with heir context- situational attributions The Fundamental Attribution Error  Tendency to ignore situational information while focusing on dispositional information is known as the fundamental attribution error  Termed fundamental as it is deeply ingrained in us  Its not universal as ppl can be described in their roles, behaviours, etc.  Study with Indians and American children show similar attribution patterns to deviant behaviour scenario but as Americans get older, they tend to mke more dispositional attributions and as Indians get older they mke more situational attributions  Americans attributed behavior to personality and Chinese to situation Reasoning Styles  If analytic thinkers tend to view the world as operating according to a set of universal abstract rules and laws, they will apply such rules and laws when they try to make a sense of situation  Holistic thinkers should be more likely to mke sense of a situation by considering rltnshps among objects or events.  Flower example- when deciding whether two stimuli are similar, E.A rely more on rule based reasoning whereas East Asians base their reasoning more on family resemblances Asians more likely to use holistic reasoning in a situation when there is a conflict between an analytic and holistic solution. In situations when there is no conflict, Westerners should be able to engage in holistic reasoning and East Asian should be able to rely on analytic reasoning strategies  Holistic thinkers tend to see actions as having distal, and unexpected consequences. Analytic thinkers focus their attention to the relations between relatively small number of discrete objects or events Toleration of Contradiction  Naïve dialecticism: acceptance of contradiction  When Americans encounter 2 contradictory arguments, they come to view the better argument as even more compelling than when they encounter this same argument by itself. In contrast, when Chinese encounter 2 contradictory arguments, they come to view the weaker argument as more compelling than when it is presented by itself  Chinese twice as likely as Americans to predict that trend would reverse
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