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Canada (161,767)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYC14H3 (215)
Sisi Tran (101)
Chapter 5

PSYC14 Chapter 5

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Sisi Tran

Chapter 5: Self and Personality Who am I? - The nature of ourselves strongly influences the ways we perceive and interact with our social worlds. - We might appear highly similar across experiences in two diverse cultural worlds and vary only in terms of the content of things that we would be thinking about. - Twenty-Statements Test: an experiment wherein participants complete the statement “I am…” twenty times. ○ The most popular kinds of self-descriptions for Americans were personal characteristics such as their traits, attitudes and abilities (Canadians and British). ○ The statements made by a non-Westernized group reflected their social identity such as their roles and memberships (Chinese, Japanese, Indians and Puerto Ricans). Independent V.S. Interdependent Views of Self - Independent view of self: the self can be thought to derive its identity from inner attributes. ○ These reflect the essence of the individual in that they are the basis of the individual’s identity and distinct from their relationships. ○ They are viewed as stable across situations and across the lifespan and are perceived to be unique. ○ They are viewed as significant for regulating behaviour and individuals feel an obligation to publicly advertise themselves in ways consistent with these attributes. - Interdependent view of self: the self can be viewed as a relational entity that is fundamentally connected to and sustained by a number of significant relationships. ○ They consider their behaviours will affect others and they must organize their own psychological experiences in response to what others are apparently doing. ○ Individuals are not perceived as separate and distinct entities but as participants in a larger social unit. ○ Their experience of identity is reflexive in that it is contingent on their position relative to others and their relationships with those others. - Our self-concepts organize the information that we have about ourselves, they influence how we will appraise situations and they direct our attention to information viewed to be relevant. Individualism and Collectivism - Individualistic cultures are more likely to elaborate on independent aspects of themselves and they come to feel distinct from others and emphasize the importance of being self-sufficient. - Collectivistic cultures are more likely to attend to interdependent aspects of their self-concepts, such as their close relationships and group memberships. - Although interdependent selves appear to be more common throughout the world, most research in psychology has emerged in cultures where independent selves predominate. - People cannot be categorized so clearly into discrete categories; rather, the experience of self appears to track a continuum (on average, people in a culture are more individualistic or collectivistic). ○ Situations that highlight independent aspects of the self will be more frequently encountered when participating in an individualistic culture in which cultural practices emphasize personal goals over collective ones. ○ Situations that facilitate interdependent aspects of the self are more frequently encountered when individuals participate in collectivistic cultural contexts. ○ All cultures are highly heterogeneous and contain a great variety of people. Gender and Culture - Women are apparently more interdependent than men only with respect to their attention to others’ feelings and concerns; they do not appear to be different on other factors associated with individualism/collectivism. - On average, the male stereotypical traits were viewed as more admirable than female ones. - Across cultures, male stereotypes were perceived to be considerably more active than female ones. - In all cultures, male stereotypes were more associated with perceptions of strength than female ones. - Although there are some similarities in how men and women are perceived across the world, there are marked differences in the equality of the opportunities that men and women have. - Countries in which a large percentage of the population practiced Christianity were more likely to have egalitarian gender views whereas countries with large percentage of Muslims were associated with more traditional gender views. - The more Northern countries express more egalitarian view and more Southern countries express more traditional gender views. - The more urbanized the country, the more likely people were to have egalitarian views. - Americans view male identity to be less changeable and thus more essentialized ○ (Do not find anything unusual for women to present themselves like men but find it disturbing for men to play with dolls or men taking ballet lessons) - When females are viewed as more powerful, they also have more essentialized identities whereas the reverse holds true where males are viewe
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