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PSYC14H3 (215)
Sisi Tran (101)
Chapter 10

PSYC14 Chapter 10

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Sisi Tran

Chapter 10: Mental and Physical Health Mental Health - Hikikomori: social withdrawal in teens that they no longer want to have social interaction with anyone and to shut themselves off from the outside world, most common in Japan. - Dhat Syndrome: belief among young men that they are leaking semen, which causes them to be morbidly anxious, most common in South Asian cultures and not in American cultures (disapproval of masturbation). Culture-Bound Syndromes - Culture-Bond Syndromes: those that appear to be greatly influenced by cultural factors and occur less frequently or are manifested in highly divergent ways in other cultures. - Eating Disorders: rates of these disorders have been increasing over the past 50 years due to cultural norms and religious starvation as evident in saints (cultural messages that attractive bodies are thin) and are more prevalent in Western societies. o Bulimia Nervosa: a disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating and induced vomiting or other inappropriate behaviors to prevent weight gain. o Anorexia Nervosa: a disorder characterized by the refusal to maintain a normal body weight, be intensely fearful or gaining weight, deny the seriousness of one’s low body weight and for females, missing 3 consecutive menstrual cycles. o Anorexia does not meet the standards for a functional universal but in some contexts a similar motivation like self-starvation is associated with different ends (avoiding becoming overweight vs. being spiritually ascetic). - Koro: = the head of a turtle and is a syndrome more common among men where it manifests as a morbid fear that one’s penis is shrinking into one’s body, most common in South and East Asia (for women, fear is that their nipples are shrinking into their body). - Amok: an acute outburst of unrestrained violence associated with homicidal attacks preceded by a period of brooding and ending with exhaustion and amnesia, most common in a number of Southeast Asian cultures like Malaysia. - Frigophobia: a morbid fear of catching a cold, which leads people to dress themselves in heavy coats and scarves even in summer, most common in China. - Susto: people feel that a frightening experience has caused their souls to be dislodged from their bodies, leading to a wide range of physical and psychological symptoms, most common in Latin America. - Voodoo Death: people are convinced that a curse has been put on them or that they have broken a taboo, which results in a severe fear reaction that sometimes leads to their own deaths, most common in Africa. - Latah: a condition in which people fall into a transient dissociated state (exhibiting unusual behavior like barking and shouting and then forgetting afterwards) after some kind of startling event, such as being tickled or thinking they have seen a snake, most common in Southeast Asian cultures, Siberia and Japan. - Malgri: a syndrome of territorial anxiety, most common in Australian aboriginal groups. - Agonias: an anxiety disorder when people report a wide array of symptoms like burning sensation, loss of breath, hysterical blindness, sleeping and eating disorders, most common among Portuguese and Azoreans. - Brain Fag Syndrome: complaints of intellectual and visual impairment and a burning sensation in the head and neck, most common among West Africa and Chinese students. - Ataques de Nervious: emotionally charged incidents like funerals or family conflicts bring on symptoms like palpitations, numbness and a sense of heat rising to the head, most common with Puerto Ricans. - Arctic Hysteria: a hysterical attack in which patients experience a sudden loss or disturbance of consciousness, leading them to tear off their clothes, roll around in snow and speak unknown languages, most common in Inuit populations. 1 Universal Syndromes - Depression: symptoms include sadness, sense of futility and loss of energy (short/long periods of time), the most common psychological disorder in the West. o Major Depressive Disorder (MDD): severe depression  Symptoms: depressed mood, inability to feel pleasure, change in weight/appetite, sleep problems, psychomotor change, fatigue/energy loss, feelings of worthlessness/guilt, poor concentration and sucidality.  The prevalence of depression varies depending on how the diagnostic criteria are applied.  But NOT ALL depressed individuals show the same symptoms. o Rates of depression in China are significantly lower than the United States. o Somatization: when they feel symptoms primarily in their bodies. o Psychologization: when their symptoms are primarily in their minds. o Somatization is more common among Chinese presentations of depression than among Westerners and psychological ones are fewer in Chinese patients.  Differences in social stigma associated with mental illness.  The symptoms experienced by people across different cultures may be the same but people from some cultures tend to focus on certain symptoms more than people from other cultures.  The symptoms are experienced differently across cultures. - Social Anxiety Disorder / Social Phobia: the fear that one is in danger of acting in an inept and unacceptable manner and that such poor performance will result in disastrous social consequences. o This is more pronounced among East Asians than North Americans because there is more emphasis on the value of fitting in with others (being interdependent). o Even though East Asians tend to score higher than Westerners on measures of social anxiety, surveys find far less evidence of people who meet clinical criteria of social anxiety disorder in East Asia than in the West. o Taijin Kyoufushou (TKS): phobia of confronting others but its symptoms are quite distinct from social anxiety disorder (extensive blushing, body odor and sweating).  It doesn’t only preoccupy the individual but it also causes great deal of unease in others.  More common disorder in Japan than society anxiety disorder in the US.  Social anxiety disorder is more common in the West among women and TKS is more common in Japan among men. - Suicide: most tragic consequences of mental illness. o Suicide is more significant part of some cultures than others and is virtually absent in Egypt and in some other Muslim cultures, where the religion is prohibitive toward suicide. o Except for Egypt, there was an increase in suicide rates among the elderly. o Except for Egypt and Micronesia, the suicide rates were quite similar across cultures for adolescents. o Suicides in Micronesia occur mostly among adolescent males living at home with no outward signs of any disorder or abuse (death by asphyxia) and are due to arguments among peers and families. o First Nations youth are susceptible to suicide because of loss of traditional c
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