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Psychology (9,695)
PSYC14H3 (215)
Sisi Tran (101)
Chapter 12

PSYC14 Chapter 12

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC14H3
Professor
Sisi Tran
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 12: Living in Multicultural Worlds Difficulties in Studying Acculturation - Acculturation: the process by which people migrate to and learn a culture that is different from their original/heritage culture. - Few commonalities occur for all acculturating individuals and this makes it challenging to identifying common patterns. - Migrants: those who move from a heritage culture to a host culture and include those who intend to stay only temporarily (sojourners) and those who intend to move permanently (immigrants). What Happen When People Move to a New Culture? - Changes in attitudes toward the host culture  Honeymoon Stage: initially, people tend to view their experiences in new cultures to be pleasant and exciting (tourists).  Crisis of Culture Shock: the earlier thrill of having novel experiences wears off and these experiences become tiring and difficult (recent migrants experience homesickness).  Culture Shock: the feeling of being anxious, helpless, irritable and homesick that one experiences on moving to a new culture.  Adjustment: after the crisis stage, most people start to adjust and begin to enjoy their experiences more (tends to extend over a number of years). ○ Reverse Culture Shock: find themselves puzzling over why they do not quite feel at home any more in their home country. ○ In homogenous societies (Japan), the adjustment phase takes longer than heterogeneous countries (US). - Who adjusts better?  Cultural Distance: the difference between two cultures in their overall ways of life. ○ The more cultural distance someone travels, the more difficult that person will acculturate. ○ Language and establishing interpersonal relationships with members of the host culture are some predictors of ease of acculturation. ○ People do not have to leave their country to be confronted with the need to acculturate to new set of values (different cultures in different areas).  Cultural Fit: the degree to which an individual’s personality is more similar to the dominant cultural values in the host culture. ○ The greater the cultural fit of a person with the host culture, the more easily he should acculturate to it. ○ People with more independent self-concepts would be a better cultural fit in individualistic societies (US).  Integration Strategy: attempting to fit in and fully participate in the host culture while at the same time striving to maintain the traditions of one’s heritage culture. ○ Most common strategy people pursue (best of both worlds). 1 ○ The strategy that results in the lowest degree of acculturative stress. 2  Marginalization Strategy: involves little/no effort to participate in the host culture or to maintain the traditions of the heritage culture. ○ Least common strategy (negative view towards both cultures).  Assimilation Strategy: attempt to fit in and fully participate in the host culture while making little/no effort to maintain the traditions of one’s heritage culture. ○ Potential cost is the loss of one’s heritage culture and accompanying social support networks and a sense of disconnection with the past.  Separation Strategy: involves efforts to maintain the traditions of the heritage culture while making little/no effort to participate in the host culture. ○ Bear the cost of rejecting the host culture and is accompanied by the individuals being rejected by the host culture too.  Need for Cognitive Closure (NCC): a desire to have a definite answer to a question. ○ People high in NCC will adopt an acculturation strategy that is affected by their early experiences in the host culture. ○ People high in NCC who connect with their compatriots at the beginning of their sojourn will adopt a separation strategy; if not connected, they will adopt an assimilation strategy. ○ People low in NCC will not be affected by their initial experiences in the new culture and will not be as influenced by the social network they first encounter. - Pitfalls of Acculturation:  People adopt even the bad and unhealthy customs by the host country (smoking, drinking and unhealthy eating causing obesity). ○ Japanese – having the longest life expectancy, moving to the US are more likely to get a coronary heart disease than those who stay in Japan (those who acculturated with American lifestyle). ○ People become more obese as they acculturate to the US customs.  Many immigrant groups ar
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