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Canada (161,454)
Psychology (9,694)
PSYC14H3 (215)
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Chapter 7

book notes for chapter 7

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Sisi Tran

Chapter 7: Morality, Religion and Justice Secularization: religion is on the decline and people around the world are discovering new secular and rational ways to make sense of their lives. o But in reality, religion is growing in importance across the planet. o The consequences of cultural differences in perceptions of morality underlie many of the past and future conflicts around the world (911 bombing, Islam is criticized by Christians). Three Perspectives for Making Sense of Cultural Diversity: Universalism, Evolutionism and Relativism Universalism: the perspective that sees people from different cultures as largely the same and that any observed cultural variability exists only at a superficial level. o People are the same wherever you go and the differences that we see across cultures are largely differences in term of conventions and are of little significance. o Languages of cultures seem to be very different from one another but closer examinations of languages reveal that they do have much in common (universal word orders and grammar). Relativism: the perspective that sees cultural diversity in ways of thinking is not superficial but reflects genuinely different psychological processes (culture and thought are mutually constituted). o Cultural practices lead to certain habitual ways of thinking and because cultural practices differ across cultures, habitual ways also vary. o East Asian cultures are much more concerned with face than are people in Western individualistic societies. o No individual cultures psychological tendencies is view as better or worse but that cultural practices reflect a solution to the challenges faced by that culture. Evolutionism: the perspective that sees cultural variability reflects genuine differences in psychological processes and that there really is only one way that the mind has evolved to think. o Some ways of thinking are more mature or advanced than others and people of different cultures would all think in the same ways once they reached the same point of development. o Evolutionists identify a particular psychological process as a standard of mature or advanced thinking and then to evaluate other cultures by how closely they match this standard. Ethnocentrism and Interpreting Cultural Variability Ethnocentrism leads people to assume that their own cultures way of life are in some ways better or more natural than that of others (but it is not true). Because of the ethnocentrism bias, it is a big challenge to consider standards for psychological phenomena that would be universally valid, rather than ones that are favored within ones own culture. www.notesolution.com
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