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Types of Cross-Cultural Research • Method validation studies ◦ validity ▪ refers to whether or not a scale, or test actually tests accurately measures what it is supposed to measure ◦ reliability ▪ whether or not something is measured consistently ◦ e.g. invalid study ▪ cannot simply take a measure that was developed and validated in one culture and use it in another ▪ this is why it is necessary to test validity and reliability of measures in different culture ◦ cross-cultural validation studies ▪ measure whether or not a measure that was developed in one culture is applicable and psychometrically equivalent (reliable and valid) in another culture ▪ important to conduct before cross-cultural comparisons • Indigenous Cultural studies ◦ rich descriptions of theoretical models that predict and explain cultural differences ◦ gives an in-depth analysis of the cultural system • Cross-cultural comparisons ◦ compare cultures ◦ most prevalent type of cross-cultural study Types of Cross-cultural Comparisons • Exploratory vs. Hypothesis Testing ◦ exploratory testing ▪ look at cross-cultural similarities and differences ▪ researchers stay "close to the date" ▪ strength: broad scope for looking at differences and similarities ▪ weakness: limited capability to answer causes of differences ◦ hypothesis-testing ▪ designed to look at why cultural differences exist ▪ make large inferential jumps ▪ this threatens their validity because of biases and inequivalence ▪ strengths: make bigger contribution to theory development ▪ weakness: less likely to discover anything interesting outside the tested theory • Presence of Absence of Contextual Factors ◦ contextual factors ▪ could be characteristics of the participant (e.g. age, socioeconomic status) or culture ▪ any variable that can help to explain cross-cultural differences • Structure vs. Level Oriented ◦ structure ▪ comparing constructs ▪ focus on relationship among variables and attempt to identify similarities and differences across cultures ◦ level-oriented ▪ see if the differences have different levels/averages across cultures • Individual vs. Ecological (Cultural) Level ◦ individual-level studies ▪ typical psychology study ▪ individual participants provide data as unit of analysis ◦ ecological/cultural-level studies ▪ countries or cultures as unit of analysis ▪ data may be taken from individuals, but is then summarized and averaged for each culture ▪ data can also be obtained from population stats, avg. temp etc ◦ Hofstede's ecological study ▪ individualism vs. collectivism ▪ power distance ▪ uncertainty avoidance ▪ masculinity vs. femininity ▪ long vs. short-term orientation ◦ multi-level studies ▪ combined individual and cultural-level data ▪ examine the relationship of data at one level to another ▪ e.g. individual differences in performance on a cognitive task (level 1) related to personality (level 2) which in turn is related to cultural values or other ecological variables (level 3) Designing Cross-Cultural Comparative Research • problem is that sometimes researchers focus exlusively on methodology and don't consider what their research question is • it is not enough to document cultural differences, need to isolate the source of the differences and identify the active cultural ingredients that produce those differences • need to make sure that a variable is cultural, not just individual difference ◦ do this through well-thought out rationale and supporting data • also need to see if it is a top-down or bottom-up process (culture produces differences or vise versa) Linkage Studies • linkage studies ◦ studies that attempt to measure an aspect of culture theoretically hypothesized to produce cultural differences and then empirically link that measured aspect of culture iwht the dependent variable of interest ◦ 2 types: unpackaging and individual-level measures of culture studies • unpackaging studies ◦ include the measurement of a variable (contextual factor) ◦ cultures are like onions: peel off cross-cultural differences ◦ context variables ▪ measured to examine the degree to which they can account for cultural differences ▪ variables that are measured in unpacking studies ▪ variables that operationalize aspects of culture that researches think produce differences in psychological variables ▪ any variable that is thought to vary on the cultural level and affects psychological processes • individual-level measures of culture ◦ assess a variable on the individual level that is though to be a product of culture e.g. individualism vs. collectivism ◦ INDCOL ▪ scale to measure a person's IC tendencies in relation to six collectives (spouse, parents, children, kin, neighbours, friends, coworkers, classmates ▪ refers to individualism as idiocentrism (refers to how a person may act in accordance to individualistic cultural frameworks) ▪ refers to collectivism as allocentrism (refers to collectivism on the individual level, refers to how individuals act in accordance with collectivistic cultural frameworks) ◦ horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism ▪ horizontal collectivism ▪ ppl see themselves as members of ingroups where members are equal ▪ vertical collectivism ▪ ppl see themselves as members of ungroups that have hierarchical or status relationships ▪ horizontal individualism ▪ individuals are autonomous and equal ▪ vertical individualism ▪ individuals are autonomous, but unequal ◦ ICIAI ▪ assesses context-specific IC tendencies in interpersonal situations ▪ e.g. American and Japanese cultural differences in judgements of emotions…differed in how strongly they perceived facial expressions of emotion ◦ IC had moderate effects on self-concept and relationally and large effects on attributions and cognitive styles • self-construal scales ◦ scales for measuring independence and interdependence on the individual level ◦ Self-construal scale ▪ cultural differences in self-esteem and embarassability are empirically linked to individual differences on these types of self-construals ▪ measure independence and interdependence • personality ◦ context variable ◦ in countries there can be differences in aggregate personality across cultures ◦ e.g. New Zealand-high level of extraversion, France-high level of neuroticism • cultural practices ◦ such as child-rearing, nature of interpersonal relationships, or cultural world views ◦ e.g. Americans like others they think are similar to them, Japanese liking was related to familiarity and interdependence with others • experiments ◦ studies where researchers create conditions to establish cause-effect relationships ◦ assigned randomly to participate in the conditions and and compare the results ◦ difference from cross-cultural comparisons ▪ researchers cannot create the cultural groups ▪ can't randomly assign participants to those groups • priming studies ◦ experimentally manipulating the mindsets of participants and measuring the resulting changes in behaviour ◦ if participants behave differently as a function of the primed mindset, then the primed cultural mindset set caused the observed differences in behaviour, providing a link between a cultural product (the mindset) and a psychological process (the behaviour) ◦ e.g. individuals who were primed privately about how they were different from others produced more individually oriented responses, those primed c
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