Textbook Notes (367,788)
Canada (161,401)
Psychology (9,688)
PSYC14H3 (215)
Michelle (3)
Chapter

c14-ch two.docx

9 Pages
67 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC14H3
Professor
Michelle
Semester
Fall

Description
Types of Cross-Cultural Research • Method validation studies ◦ validity ▪ refers to whether or not a scale, or test actually tests accurately measures what it is supposed to measure ◦ reliability ▪ whether or not something is measured consistently ◦ e.g. invalid study ▪ cannot simply take a measure that was developed and validated in one culture and use it in another ▪ this is why it is necessary to test validity and reliability of measures in different culture ◦ cross-cultural validation studies ▪ measure whether or not a measure that was developed in one culture is applicable and psychometrically equivalent (reliable and valid) in another culture ▪ important to conduct before cross-cultural comparisons • Indigenous Cultural studies ◦ rich descriptions of theoretical models that predict and explain cultural differences ◦ gives an in-depth analysis of the cultural system • Cross-cultural comparisons ◦ compare cultures ◦ most prevalent type of cross-cultural study Types of Cross-cultural Comparisons • Exploratory vs. Hypothesis Testing ◦ exploratory testing ▪ look at cross-cultural similarities and differences ▪ researchers stay "close to the date" ▪ strength: broad scope for looking at differences and similarities ▪ weakness: limited capability to answer causes of differences ◦ hypothesis-testing ▪ designed to look at why cultural differences exist ▪ make large inferential jumps ▪ this threatens their validity because of biases and inequivalence ▪ strengths: make bigger contribution to theory development ▪ weakness: less likely to discover anything interesting outside the tested theory • Presence of Absence of Contextual Factors ◦ contextual factors ▪ could be characteristics of the participant (e.g. age, socioeconomic status) or culture ▪ any variable that can help to explain cross-cultural differences • Structure vs. Level Oriented ◦ structure ▪ comparing constructs ▪ focus on relationship among variables and attempt to identify similarities and differences across cultures ◦ level-oriented ▪ see if the differences have different levels/averages across cultures • Individual vs. Ecological (Cultural) Level ◦ individual-level studies ▪ typical psychology study ▪ individual participants provide data as unit of analysis ◦ ecological/cultural-level studies ▪ countries or cultures as unit of analysis ▪ data may be taken from individuals, but is then summarized and averaged for each culture ▪ data can also be obtained from population stats, avg. temp etc ◦ Hofstede's ecological study ▪ individualism vs. collectivism ▪ power distance ▪ uncertainty avoidance ▪ masculinity vs. femininity ▪ long vs. short-term orientation ◦ multi-level studies ▪ combined individual and cultural-level data ▪ examine the relationship of data at one level to another ▪ e.g. individual differences in performance on a cognitive task (level 1) related to personality (level 2) which in turn is related to cultural values or other ecological variables (level 3) Designing Cross-Cultural Comparative Research • problem is that sometimes researchers focus exlusively on methodology and don't consider what their research question is • it is not enough to document cultural differences, need to isolate the source of the differences and identify the active cultural ingredients that produce those differences • need to make sure that a variable is cultural, not just individual difference ◦ do this through well-thought out rationale and supporting data • also need to see if it is a top-down or bottom-up process (culture produces differences or vise versa) Linkage Studies • linkage studies ◦ studies that attempt to measure an aspect of culture theoretically hypothesized to produce cultural differences and then empirically link that measured aspect of culture iwht the dependent variable of interest ◦ 2 types: unpackaging and individual-level measures of culture studies • unpackaging studies ◦ include the measurement of a variable (contextual factor) ◦ cultures are like onions: peel off cross-cultural differences ◦ context variables ▪ measured to examine the degree to which they can account for cultural differences ▪ variables that are measured in unpacking studies ▪ variables that operationalize aspects of culture that researches think produce differences in psychological variables ▪ any variable that is thought to vary on the cultural level and affects psychological processes • individual-level measures of culture ◦ assess a variable on the individual level that is though to be a product of culture e.g. individualism vs. collectivism ◦ INDCOL ▪ scale to measure a person's IC tendencies in relation to six collectives (spouse, parents, children, kin, neighbours, friends, coworkers, classmates ▪ refers to individualism as idiocentrism (refers to how a person may act in accordance to individualistic cultural frameworks) ▪ refers to collectivism as allocentrism (refers to collectivism on the individual level, refers to how individuals act in accordance with collectivistic cultural frameworks) ◦ horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism ▪ horizontal collectivism ▪ ppl see themselves as members of ingroups where members are equal ▪ vertical collectivism ▪ ppl see themselves as members of ungroups that have hierarchical or status relationships ▪ horizontal individualism ▪ individuals are autonomous and equal ▪ vertical individualism ▪ individuals are autonomous, but unequal ◦ ICIAI ▪ assesses context-specific IC tendencies in interpersonal situations ▪ e.g. American and Japanese cultural differences in judgements of emotions…differed in how strongly they perceived facial expressions of emotion ◦ IC had moderate effects on self-concept and relationally and large effects on attributions and cognitive styles • self-construal scales ◦ scales for measuring independence and interdependence on the individual level ◦ Self-construal scale ▪ cultural differences in self-esteem and embarassability are empirically linked to individual differences on these types of self-construals ▪ measure independence and interdependence • personality ◦ context variable ◦ in countries there can be differences in aggregate personality across cultures ◦ e.g. New Zealand-high level of extraversion, France-high level of neuroticism • cultural practices ◦ such as child-rearing, nature of interpersonal relationships, or cultural world views ◦ e.g. Americans like others they think are similar to them, Japanese liking was related to familiarity and interdependence with others • experiments ◦ studies where researchers create conditions to establish cause-effect relationships ◦ assigned randomly to participate in the conditions and and compare the results ◦ difference from cross-cultural comparisons ▪ researchers cannot create the cultural groups ▪ can't randomly assign participants to those groups • priming studies ◦ experimentally manipulating the mindsets of participants and measuring the resulting changes in behaviour ◦ if participants behave differently as a function of the primed mindset, then the primed cultural mindset set caused the observed differences in behaviour, providing a link between a cultural product (the mindset) and a psychological process (the behaviour) ◦ e.g. individuals who were primed privately about how they were different from others produced more individually oriented responses, those primed c
More Less

Related notes for PSYC14H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit